International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 161–170 | Cite as

The Association Between Social Support, Body Mass Index and Increased Risk of Prediabetes: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

  • Anna Serlachius
  • Marko Elovainio
  • Markus Juonala
  • Steven Shea
  • Matthew Sabin
  • Terho Lehtimäki
  • Olli Raitakari
  • Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
  • Laura Pulkki-Råback
Article

Abstract

Purpose

The psychosocial determinants of prediabetes are poorly understood. The aims of our study were (1) to analyse the association between perceived social support in young adulthood and fasting glucose levels and prediabetes in mid-adulthood in a cohort of healthy Finns, (2) to explore whether body mass index (BMI), inflammation or depression mediate this relationship, (3) and to examine the association between social support trajectory groups and fasting glucose.

Method

A prospective design was used with an analytic sample of 1250 participants aged 3–18 years at baseline (1980) and aged 12–39 years when social support was measured. Fasting glucose and prediabetes were assessed 32 years after baseline. Linear and logistic regression was used to examine the association between social support and the outcome measures. A bootstrapping technique was used to examine mediation effects.

Results

Social support was associated with future glucose levels in women after adjusting for childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and youth depression (β = −0.136, p = 0.001) and also predicted prediabetes in women after adjusting for childhood SES (β = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.02 to 1.69, p = 0.031). Both associations were attenuated after adjusting for BMI in mid-adulthood. BMI was found to mediate the relationship between social support and prediabetes in women (β for indirect effect β = 0.09, SE = 0.03, CI = 0.03 to 0.16).

Conclusion

Low perceived social support in young adulthood is associated with high fasting glucose and prediabetes in mid-adulthood in women but not men. The association between social support and prediabetes in women can be partly explained by BMI.

Keywords

Fasting glucose Prediabetes Prospective study Social support Type 2 diabetes 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We greatly acknowledge Irina Lisinen, Johanna Ikonen and Ville Aalto for assistance in managing the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns dataset.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

The Young Finns Study has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland: grants 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378 (Salve), 117787 (Gendi), 41071 (Skidi), 265869, 258711, 258578, 265977 and 286284; the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospital Medical Funds (grants 9N035 and X51001), the Juho Vainio Foundation, the Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, the Emil Aaltonen Foundation, the Paavo Nurmi Foundation, the Finnish Foundation of Cardiovascular Research, the Finnish Cultural Foundation, the Osk. Huttunen Foundation and the Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation.

Conflict of Interest

No conflict of interest declared.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Serlachius
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marko Elovainio
    • 1
    • 3
  • Markus Juonala
    • 4
    • 5
  • Steven Shea
    • 2
    • 6
  • Matthew Sabin
    • 7
    • 8
  • Terho Lehtimäki
    • 9
    • 10
  • Olli Raitakari
    • 4
    • 11
  • Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
    • 1
  • Laura Pulkki-Råback
    • 1
    • 12
  1. 1.Institute of Behavioural SciencesThe University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.The Department of Medicine, Division of General MedicineColumbia UniversityNew York CityUSA
  3. 3.Institute for Health and WelfareHelsinkiFinland
  4. 4.Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular MedicineUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  5. 5.The Division of MedicineTurku University HospitalTurkuFinland
  6. 6.The Department of Epidemiology, Joseph Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew York CityUSA
  7. 7.The Department of PaediatricsUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  8. 8.Murdoch Childrens Research InstituteRoyal Children’s HospitalMelbourneAustralia
  9. 9.The Department of Clinical ChemistryFimlab LaboratoriesTampereFinland
  10. 10.School of MedicineUniversity of TampereTampereFinland
  11. 11.The Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear MedicineTurku University HospitalTurkuFinland
  12. 12.The Collegium for Advanced StudiesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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