Arabian Journal of Geosciences

, Volume 6, Issue 9, pp 3481–3492 | Cite as

Deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Gwadar City, Pakistan

  • Shafiq Ur Rehman
  • Muhammad Khalid
  • Asif Ali
  • Abd El-aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal
Original Paper


Gwadar City is located at the coastline of Pakistan. The city is currently in a phase of development, which is expected to become a future economic hub for Pakistan. This has led us to choose Gwadar for seismic hazard evaluation. Seismic hazard analysis for Gwadar is carried out using deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard analysis techniques. The present study will help in sustainable development of a future large city and economic hub for Pakistan on ways of coping from a major threat of earthquake hazard. In deterministic seismic hazard analysis, line sources were identified close to Gwadar. Based on the analysis of maximum magnitude and closest distance (worse conditions), Makran subduction zone was identified out of all the line sources with earthquake potential of 8.2 at a distance of 30 km. This yielded a peak ground acceleration value of 0.38 g for Gwadar City. In second phase, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis technique with the area source modeling was adopted to acquire results at different return periods. For this purpose, seismic data were collected from the Pakistan Meteorological Department and International Seismological Center (2010) databases for development of a comprehensive data catalog. The a and b values were obtained using regression analysis for each source zone, and probabilistic analysis yielded the results of 0.34 g for a return period of 500 years. As per building codes of Pakistan, areas or cities with ground acceleration greater than 0.32 g are considered in seismic zone 4, and both deterministic and probabilistic hazard analysis place the city in seismic zone 4. These values correspond to rock site with shear wave velocity of 760 m/s.


Deterministic analysis Probabilistic seismic hazard Makran Gwadar Peak ground acceleration 


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shafiq Ur Rehman
    • 1
  • Muhammad Khalid
    • 2
  • Asif Ali
    • 2
  • Abd El-aziz Khairy Abd El-Aal
    • 3
  1. 1.Pakistan Meteorological DepartmentIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Pakistan Meteorological DepartmentKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.National Research Institute of Astronomy and GeophysicsCairoEgypt

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