This study investigated the relations between paternal and maternal parenting and gratitude during emerging adulthood and examined whether time perspective in late adolescence explained these links. The sample included 438 students (299 females) with an average age of 19.56 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of paternal and maternal care and control, their perceptions of five time perspectives (i.e., past-positive, past-negative, present-hedonistic, present-fatalistic, and future), and dispositional gratitude. Participants who rated their fathers and mothers as more caring reported higher levels of gratitude, greater past-positive time perspective and weaker past-negative time perspective. Moreover, participants who rated their mothers as more caring also reported a greater future time perspective. Furthermore, participants who had greater past-positive and future time perspectives reported higher levels of gratitude. In contrast, participants who had a greater past-negative time perspective reported lower levels of gratitude. Finally, two time perspectives (i.e., past-positive and past-negative) partially mediated the relations of paternal and maternal care with gratitude in young adults. In addition, future time perspective also partially mediated the relations of maternal care with gratitude, and past-negative time perspective partially mediated the relations of maternal control with gratitude in late adolescence. The findings highlighted the unique relations of paternal care, maternal care and maternal control with individuals’ gratitude and indicated that three time perspectives (i.e., past-positive, past-negative, and future) may explain why parenting practices were linked with gratitude during emerging adulthood.
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The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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This study was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of China in Taiwan (Contract MOST 108-2410-H-027-008-SSS).
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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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Lin, CC. The influence of parenting on gratitude during emerging adulthood: the mediating effect of time perspective. Curr Psychol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01312-z
- Paternal parenting
- Maternal parenting
- Time perspective