Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 1520–1535 | Cite as

Microstructural Engineering in Eutectoid Steel: A Technological Possibility?

  • A. Durgaprasad
  • S. Giri
  • S. Lenka
  • S. Kundu
  • S. Chandra
  • S. Mishra
  • R. D. Doherty
  • I. Samajdar


Eutectoid wire rods were subjected to controlled thermo-mechanical processing (TMP). Both increased cooling rate and applied stress during the austenite-to-pearlite decomposition produced significant changes in the microstructure: major increases in the pearlite’s axial alignment and minor decreases in the interlamellar spacing. The pearlite alignment was correlated with changes in the ferrite crystallographic texture and the state of residual stress. Microstructural engineering, improved axial alignment of pearlite, through controlled TMP gave a fourfold increase in torsional ductility. TMP of eutectoid steel thus appears to have interesting technological possibilities.



Support from Tata Steel and DST (Department of Science and Technology, India) are acknowledged. The authors would also like to express their appreciation for the usage of the National Facility of Texture and OIM and support from CoEST (center of excellent in steel technology) at IIT Bombay.


  1. 1.
    Y. Li, D. Raabe, M. Herbig, P. Choi, S. Goto, A. Kostka and H. Yarita: Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, vol. 113, 106104, pp. 1-5.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Langford: Metall. Trans. A., 1977, vol. 8, pp. 861–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Zelin: Acta Mater., 2002, vol. 50, pp. 4431–4447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    X. Zhang, A. Godfrey, N. Hansen, X. Huang, W. Liu and Q. Liu: Mater. Charact., 2009, vol. 61, pp. 65-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    X. Zhang, A. Godfrey, X. Huang, N. Hansen and Q. Liu: Acta Mater., 2011, vol. 59, pp. 3422-3430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y.J. Li, P. Choi, S. Goto, C. Borchers, D. Raabe and R. Kirchheim: Acta Mater., 2012, vol. 60, pp. 4005-4016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. B. Dove, “Steel Wire Handbook – Volume 3”, First ed., The Wire Association, Branford, Connecticut, 1972.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Verlinden, J. Driver, I. Samajdar and R.D. Doherty, “Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Metallic Materials”, First ed., Pergamon Materials Series, Elsevier, Oxford, 2007.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sorby HC (1886) J. Iron Steel Inst. 1: 140–144.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benedicks C (1905) J. Iron Steel Inst. 2: 352-70.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Howe HM, Levy AG (1916) J. Iron Steel Inst. 2: 210.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. C. Hull and R. F. Mehl: Trans Am Soc Met., 1942, vol. 30, pp. 381-421.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Hillert: The Formation of Pearlite” in Decomposition of Austenite by Diffusional Processes, V.F. Zackay and H.I. Aaronson, Interscience, Wiley, New York, 1962.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. G. Andrés, F. G. Caballero, C. Capdevila and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia: Scr. Mater., 1998, vol. 39, pp. 791-96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. I. Aaronson, M. Enomoto and J. K. Lee, “Mechanisms of diffusional phase transformations in metals and alloys”, First ed., CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. A. Esin, B. Denand, Q. L. Bihan, M. Dehmas, J. Teixeira, G. Geandier, S. Denis, T. Sourmail and E. A. Gautier: Acta Mater., 2014, vol. 80, pp. 118-31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. E. Puttick: J Iron Steel Inst., 1957, vol. 185, pp. 161-167.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    X. Zhang, A. Godfrey, N. Hansen and X. Huang: Acta Mater., 2013, vol. 61, pp. 4898-4909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. E. Karkina, I. N. Karkin, I. G. Kabanova and A. R. Kuznetsov: Appl. Cryst., 2015, vol. 48, pp. 97-106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Guziewski, S. P. Coleman and C. R. Weinberger: Acta Mater., 2018, vol. 144, pp. 656-665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. M. Aranda, B. Kim, R. Rementeria, C. Capdevila and C. G. Andrés: Met. Metall. Trans. A, 2014, vol. 45, pp. 1778-86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. Z. Zhao, G. L. Zhang, S. H. Zhang and L. Y. Zhang: J. Iron Steel Res. Int., 2016, vol. 23, pp. 1290-96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. K. Agarwal and J. K. Brimacombe: Metall. Trans. A, 1981, vol. 12, pp. 121-33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. B. Hawbolt, B. Chau and J. K. Brimacombe: Metall. Trans. A, 1985, vol. 16, pp. 565-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. T. Pham, E. B. Hawbolt and J. K. Brimacombe: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1995, vol. 26, pp. 1987-92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. T. Pham, E. B. Hawbolt and J. K. Brimacombe: Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1995, vol. 26, pp. 1993-2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. B. Hawbolt, B. Chau and J. K. Brimacombe: Metall. Trans. A, 1983, vol. 14, pp. 1803-1815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Enomoto, W. Huang and H. Ma: ISIJ Int., 2012, vol. 52, pp. 626-631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Enomoto, W. Huang and H. Ma: ISIJ Int., 2012, vol. 52, pp. 632-37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Durgaprasad, S. Giri, S. Lenka, S. Kundu, S. Mishra, S. Chandra, R. D. Doherty and I. Samajdar: Acta Mater., 2017, vol. 129, pp. 278-289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    C Zener: Trans Am Inst Min Metall Eng., 1946, vol. 167, pp. 550-95.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. F. Mehl and H. C. Hagel: Prog. Met. Phys., 1956, vol. 6, pp. 74–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    G. F. Bolling and R. H. Richman: Metall. Trans., 1970, vol. 1, pp. 2095-2104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. L. Bramfitt and A. R. Marder: Metall. Trans., 1973, vol. 4, pp. 2291-2301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. C. Campbell, E. B. Hawbolt and J. K. Brimacombe: Metall. Trans A., 1991, vol. 22, pp. 2769-78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. C. Campbell, E. B. Hawbolt and J. K. Brimacombe: Metall. Trans A., 1991, vol. 22, pp. 2779-90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Goto, R. Kirchheim, T. Al-Kassab and C. Borchers: Trans. Non ferrous Met. Soc. China, 2007, vol. 17, pp.1129-1138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    A. Durgaprasad, S. Giri, S. Lenka, S. Kundu, S. Mishra, S. Chandra, R. D. Doherty and I. Samajdar, Metall. Trans A., 2017, vol. 48, pp. 4583-4597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. W. Andrews: Acta Metall., 1963, vol. 11, pp. 939-946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Denis, E. Gautier, S. Sjostrom and A. Simon: Acta Metall., 1987, vol. 35, pp. 1621-1632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. Denis, S. Sjostrom and A. Simon: Metall. Trans A., 1987, vol. 18, pp. 1203-1213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Van Houtte, The “MTM-FHM” and “MTM-TAY” Software System - Version 2, Manual, Department of MME, KLU Leuven, Belgium, 1995.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bunge HJ (2013) Texture Analysis in Materials Science: Mathematical Methods”, Elsevier, London 2013.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Van Houtte and L. De Buyser: Acta Metall. Mater., 1993, vol. 41, pp. 323-336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dong-Woo Suh, Chang-Seok Oh, Heung Nam Han and Sung-Joon Kim: Acta Mater., 2007, vol. 55, pp. 2659–2669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stuart H, Ridley N (1966) J. Iron Steel Inst. 204: 711-717.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Reed Hill RE (1973) Physical Metallurgy Principles, 2nd ed., pp. 702, Elsevier: AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Askeland DR (1989) The Science and Engineering of Materials, 2nd Edition, p. 372, Brooks, Cole: BostonGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Vander Voort GF (1991) The Atlas of Time- Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steels, ASM International: Reading PA, pp. 11.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    N. Ridley: Metall. Trans. A., 1984, vol. 15, pp. 1019-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. R. Marder and B. L. Bramfitt: Metallurgical Transactions A, 1975, vol. 6, pp. 2009-2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    F. Fang, L. Zhou, X. Hu, X. Zhou, Y. Tu, Z. Xie and J. Jiang: Mater. Des., 2015, vol. 79, pp. 60-67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    F. Fang, Y. Zhao, L. Zhou, X. Hu, Z. Xie and J. Jiang: Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 2014, vol. 17, pp. 505-10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    X. Hu, L. Wang, F. Fang, Z. Ma, Z. H. Xie and J. Jiang: J Mater. Sci., 2013, vol. 48, pp. 5528-5535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    T. Z. Zhao, G. L. Zhang, H. W. Song, M. Cheng and S. H. Zhang: J Mater Eng. Per. 2014 Vol. 23, pp. 3279-84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Y. He, S. Xiang, W. Shi, J. Liu, X. Ji and W. Yu: Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 2017, vol. 23, pp. 153-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    P. Van Houtte: Textures and Microstruct., 1987, vol. 7, pp. 187-205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    S. Raveendra, A. K. Kanjarla, H. Paranjape, S.K. Mishra, S. Mishra and L. Delannay: Metall. Mater. Trans A., 2011, vol. 42, pp. 2113–2124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Z. Li, Z. Wen, F. Su, R. Zhang and Z Zhou: J Mater Sci., 2018, vol. 53, pp. 1424–1436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    S.W. Thompson, P.R. Howell, Scr. Metall., 1988, vol. 22, pp. 1775-1778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    S. Zhang: Adv. Mater. Res., 2011, vol. 284-286, pp. 2358-65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    L. Zhou, F. Fang, L. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Xie and J. Jiang: Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2018, vol. 713, pp. 52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Y. J. Li, P. Choi, S. Goto S, C. Borchers, D. Raabe and R. Kirchheim: Acta Mater., 2011, vol. 59, pp. 3965-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    T. Z. Zhao, G. L. Zhang, S. H. Zhang and L. Y. Zhang: J. Iron Steel Res. Int., 2016, vol. 23, pp. 1206-1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    T. Z. Zhao, S. H. Zhang, G. L. Zhang and L. Y. Zhang: Mater. Des., 2014, vol. 59, pp. 397-405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    G. Langford: Metall. Trans. A., 1970, Vol. 8, pp. 121 – 132.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    S.K. Lee, D.C. Ko and B. M. Kim: Mater. Des., 2009, vol. 30, pp. 2919–2927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    A. Durgaprasad: Ph.D. Thesis, Department of MEMS, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 2017.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    K. Shimizu and N. Kawabe: ISIJ Int, 2001, vol. 41, pp. 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    C. Borchers and R. Kirchheim: Prog. Mater. Sci., 2016, vol. 82, pp. 405-444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Durgaprasad
    • 1
  • S. Giri
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Lenka
    • 2
  • S. Kundu
    • 2
  • S. Chandra
    • 2
  • S. Mishra
    • 3
  • R. D. Doherty
    • 1
    • 4
  • I. Samajdar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials ScienceIIT BombayMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Research and Development DivisionTATA SteelJamshedpurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIIT BombayMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations