“Pay it forward” and Altruistic Responses to Disasters in Japan: Latent Class Analysis of Support Following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

Original Paper
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Abstract

Since the emergence of borantia (volunteers) in 1995, Japanese society has developed disaster volunteerism to enable citizens to help one another. Survivors from areas affected by disasters over the past two decades have returned to assist survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011 Tohoku Earthquake) through volunteering. This chain of support is known as a “pay it forward” network. Using latent class analysis, this article statistically demonstrates that different patterns of support behavior appeared after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and that people who were supported by others following disasters were more likely to help (e.g., through volunteering, donating goods, etc.). The class characterized as “pay it forward” was found to display high-support behaviors, and this was not only explained by traditional theory (i.e., dominant status model, resource model), but also by theories related to economic status and educational background. Results indicate that developing volunteerism in Japan accelerates network support.

Keywords

Altruistic response Pay it forward 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Volunteering Disaster relief 

Résumé

Depuis l’apparition des borantia (bénévoles) en 1995, la société japonaise a mis sur pied des systèmes de bénévolat qui permettent aux citoyens de s’entraider. Les survivants de régions victimes, dans les deux dernières décennies, de désastres reviennent aider les survivants du grand tremblement de terre de l’est du Japon (Tohoku, 2011) en tant que bénévoles. Cette chaîne de soutien s’appelle le réseau « donnez au suivant » . À l’aide d’une analyse de structure latente, le présent article démontre, sur la base de statistiques, que divers modèles de soutien ont fait leur apparition après le tremblement de terre de Tohoku de 2011 et que les personnes qui sont soutenues par d’autres suite à des désastres ont plus tendance à offrir leur aide (bénévolat, dons d’aliments, etc.) Nos résultats démontrent que la structure « donnez au suivant » est caractérisée par des comportements d’aide marqués et ce phénomène est non seulement renforcé par la théorie traditionnelle (modèle de statut dominant, modèle de ressources), mais aussi par des théories associées au statut économique et à l’éducation. Les résultats indiquent que le bénévolat en développement au Japon accélère l’offre de soutien au réseau.

Zusammenfassung

Seit dem Aufkommen von Borantia (Ehrenamtliche) 1995 hat die japanische Gesellschaft das ehrenamtliche Engagement im Zusammenhang mit Katastrophen entwickelt, um es Bürgern zu ermöglichen, sich gegenseitig zu helfen. Überlebende aus Katastrophengebieten in den vergangenen zwei Jahrzehnten haben wiederum Überlebenden des großen Erdbebens von Ostjapan im Jahr 2011 (Tohoku-Erdbeben 2011) ehrenamtlich geholfen. Diese Kette der Unterstützung ist als „Pay-it-forward“-Netzwerk bekannt. Anhand der latenten Klassenanalyse legt dieser Beitrag statistisch dar, dass nach dem Tohoku-Erdbeben von 2011 unterschiedliche Verhaltensmuster in Verbindung mit der Unterstützung anderer auftraten und dass Menschen, die nach Katastrophen von anderen unterstützt wurden, eher dazu geneigt waren, anderen zu helfen (z. B. durch ehrenamtliche Tätigkeiten, Sachspenden etc.). Die Gruppe in der „Pay-it-forward“-Kategorie zeigte große Unterstützung von anderen, was sich nicht nur anhand der traditionellen Theorie erklären ließ (d. h. Dominanzstatus-Modell, Ressourcenmodell), sondern auch anhand von Theorien zum ökonomischen Status und Bildungshintergrund. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Entwicklung des ehrenamtlichen Engagements in Japan die Netzwerkunterstützung beschleunigt.

Resumen

Desde el surgimiento de borantia (voluntarios) en 1995, la sociedad japonesa ha desarrollado un voluntariado ante desastres para permitir que los ciudadanos se ayuden mutuamente. Los supervivientes de áreas afectadas por desastres a lo largo de las dos últimas décadas han vuelto para ayudar a los supervivientes del Gran Terremoto de Japón Oriental (Terremoto de Tohoku de 2011) mediante el voluntariado. Esta cadena de apoyo se conoce como una red de “favores”. Utilizando el análisis de clases latentes, el presente artículo demuestra estadísticamente que después del Terremoto de Tohoku de 2011 aparecieron diferentes patrones de comportamiento de ayuda, y que la gente que fue ayudada por otros tras los desastres era más probable que ayudase (por ejemplo, mediante el voluntariado, la donación de productos, etc.). Se encontró que la clase caracterizada como “de favores” mostraba comportamientos de ayuda altos y que esto no sólo quedaba explicado por la teoría tradicional (es decir, modelo de estatus dominante, modelo de recursos), sino también por teorías relacionadas con el estatus económico y la formación académica. Los resultados indican que el desarrollo del voluntariado en Japón acelera el apoyo en red.

Chinese

自从1995年兴起borantia(志愿者)以来,日本社会就发展了灾难志愿服务,从而让居民能够彼此帮助。过去二十年来,通过志愿服务,来自受灾难影响区域的幸存者回来帮助东日本大地震(2011年东北大地震)的幸存者。本支持链被称为“爱心传递”网络。使用潜在的等级分析,本文统计展示了2011年东北大地震后出现的不同支持行为模式,在出现灾难后得到其他人支持的人员更有可能提供帮助(如通过志愿服务、捐赠物品等)。特性化为“爱心传递”的等级被发现存在较高的支持行为,不仅可以通过传统理论(即主导的状态模式、资源模式),而且还可通过经济状况和教育背景相关的理论来解释。结果表明,日本不断发展的志愿服务会加速网络支持。

Japanese

「ボランティア元年」と呼ばれた1995年から、日本社会は災害ボランティアを発展させてきた。2011年に発生した東日本大震災では、この15年を通して、以前被災した人々がボランティアとして救援に駆けつけるようになった。このような支援の連鎖は、「被災地のリレー」として知られる。本論文では、潜在クラス分析を用い、以前災害で助けられた経験のある人々は、2011年の東日本大震災で救援活動(例えば、ボランティア、寄付、救援物資の購入等)をしやすくなっていたことを明らかにした。分析を通じ、「被災地のリレー」で特徴づけられる潜在クラスは、高い割合で支援活動が見られたこと、また、経済地位や教育水準の高さなど通常の理論(支配階級モデル、資源モデル等)によって説明できないクラスの特徴が明らかになった。結果からは、日本社会におけるボランティアの成熟にともない、既存の社会階層を超えた支援のネットワークが促進されていることが示唆された。

Arabic

منذ ظهور بورانتيا (المتطوعين) في عام 1995، تطور تطوع المجتمع الياباني في حالات الكوارث لتمكين المواطنين من مساعدة بعضهم البعض. قد عاد الناجون من المناطق المتضررة من الكوارث خلال العقدين الماضيين لمساعدة الناجين من زلزال شرق اليابان الكبير (زلزال توهوكو 2011) من خلال العمل التطوعي. تم تعريف سلسلة الدعم هذه بأنها شبكة “رد الإحسان بالإحسان “. بإستخدام تحليل الطبقة الكامنة، توضح هذه المقالة إحصائيا أن أنماط مختلفة من سلوك الدعم ظهرت بعد زلزال توهوكو عام 2011، وأن الأشخاص الذين دعمهم آخرون بعد الكوارث كانوا من المحتمل أكثر من غيرهم أن يساعدوا (على سبيل المثال من خلال العمل التطوعي والتبرع بالسلع وما إلى ذلك). ووجدت الطبقة التي وصفت بأنها “ترد الإحسان بالإحسان” تعرض سلوكيات دعم عالية وهذا لم يفسر فقط عن طريق النظرية التقليدية (أي نموذج الحالة المهيمنة، نموذج الموارد)، ولكن أيضا” من النظريات المتعلقة بالوضع الإقتصادي والخلفية التعليمية. تشير النتائج إلى أن تطوير العمل التطوعي في اليابان يعجل شبكة الدعم.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The first author is deeply grateful to James D. Goltz, Lee Young-Jun, Haruyo Mitani for their generous guidance of the article. The authors have been inspired by the ideas of survivors in Nishinomiya, Shiodani, Kariwa, and Noda, with whom we interacted through our fieldwork. We owe a special debt of thanks to them all. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16J02893. This work was supported by special funding for the promotion of internationalization of research activities by the Japanese Group Dynamics Association.

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Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Human SciencesOsaka UniversitySuitaJapan
  2. 2.Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceChiyodaJapan

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