In vitro induction of allohexaploid and resulting phenotypic variation in Populus
- 322 Downloads
Although triploid Populus varieties have been used widely in timber and pulpwood production, the performance of economic traits in Populus with higher ploidy levels remains unknown due to a lack of germplasms with higher ploidy. In this study, we first successfully induced hexaploids in Populus by treating triploid leaf explants with colchicine in vitro. In total, 32 hexaploids were produced. The frequency of hexaploids was significantly affected by the interaction between colchicine concentration and exposure time. The highest hexaploid induction efficiency was 16.89% (± 2.26), which was achieved by treating explants with 0.04% colchicine for 7 days. Compared to triploids, hexaploids had thinner epidermal hair, larger stomata and protoplasts, and fewer chloroplasts, indicating that significant phenotypic changes accompanied an increase in ploidy level. These hexaploids are valuable for investigating the performance of economic traits in Populus with higher ploidy levels and have the potential to be used as parents to produce new tetraploid and pentaploid germplasms in Populus breeding programs.
KeywordsAllohexaploid Chromosome doubling Colchicine Phenotypic variation Populus Shoot organogenesis
Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium
Cell protoplast washing medium
4-Morpholine ethane sulfonic acid
Bovine serum albumin
Analysis of variance
Least significant difference
Scanning electron microscopy
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31470662) and the program from the Beijing Municipal Education Commission (Grant No. CEFF-PXM2018_014207_000024). The English in this document has been checked by at least two professional editors, both native speakers of English. For a certificate, please see: http://www.textcheck.com/certificate/D74xMK.
JW conceived and designed research. WL, SS and BH conducted experiments. YZ and DL analyzed data and prepared figures. WL and JW wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Baumeister G (1980) Beispiele der polyploidie-Züchtung. Allg Forestz 35:697–699Google Scholar
- Einspahr DW (1984) Production and utilization of triploid hybrid aspen. Iowa State J Res 58(4):401–409Google Scholar
- Kang XY (2016) Polyploid induction techniques and breeding strategies in poplar. In: Mason AS (ed). Polyploidy and hybridization for crop improvement. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Miranda M, Motomura T, Ikeda F, Ohgawara T, Saito W, Endo T, Omura M, Moriguchi T (1997) Somatic hybrids obtained by fusion between Poncirus trifoliata (2x) and Fortunella hindsii (4x) protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep 16:401–405Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2007) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Austria R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Song SY (2017) Isolation of tetraploid and diploid through plant regeneration from leaf explants of Populus ploidy chimera. dissertation, Beijing Forestry University, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Song SY, Zhang JQ, Wang J (2015) Preparation and optimization of mesophyll protoplasts of Populus alba × P. berolinensis Yinzhong. Acta Bot Boreal Occident Sin 35(9):1899–1905Google Scholar
- Sugiura A, Ohkuma T, Choi YA, Tao R (2000) Production of nonaploid (2n = 9x) Japanese persimmons (Diospyros kaki) by pollination with unreduced (2n = 6x) pollen and embryo rescue culture. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 125(5):609–614Google Scholar
- Wang TY, Guo QS, Wang T (2012b) Karyotype analysis of 21 Chrysanthemum cultivars for medicine. J Nanjing Agric Univ 35(6):13–18Google Scholar
- Winton L, Einspahr DW (1970) Tetraploid aspen production using unreduced triploid pollen. Forest Sci 16:180–182Google Scholar
- Yao CL, Pu JW (1998) Timber characteristics and pulp properties of the triploid of Populus tomentosa. J Beijing For Univ 20:18–21Google Scholar
- Zhu ZT, Lin HB, Kang XY (1995) Studies on allotriploid breeding of Populus tomentosa B301 clones. Sci Silvae Sin 31:499–505Google Scholar
- Zhu ZT, Kang XY, Zhang ZY (1998) Studies on selection of natural triploid of Populus tomentosa. Sci Silvae Sin 34:22–31Google Scholar