# Quadratic stochastic operators on Banach lattices

- 303 Downloads
- 1 Citations

## Abstract

We study the convergence of iterates of quadratic stochastic operators that are mean monotonic. They are defined on the convex set of probability measures concentrated on a weakly compact order interval \(S = [0, f]\) of a fixed Banach lattice *F*. We study their regularity and identify the limits of trajectories either as the “infimum” or “supremum” of the support of initial distributions.

## Keywords

Quadratic stochastic operator Nonlinear Markov process Weak convergence Phenotypic evolution## Mathematics Subject Classification

Primary 60J35 Secondary 47H20 92D25## 1 Introduction

The theory of quadratic stochastic operators (q.s.o.) is rooted in works of Bernstein (cf. [8, 9]). Their importance was rediscovered in 1950s by S. Ulam. His seminal report [28] prompted for many theoretical publications (cf. [4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 16, 20, 21, 29]), monographs (cf. [13, 23]) and computer supported mathematical projects (cf. [3, 14, 15]) aiming to develop a unified theory illustrating (asymptotic) properties of q.s.o.. This subject has been intensively studied in mathematics and biology for almost three decades. In spite of that important questions have remained unsolved and the task is far from being completed. The asymptotic behavior of real or abstract mathematical models of biological systems, consisting with three or more biotypes, is not fully understood. We anticipate that q.s.o. will play in future an important role in genetics, population dynamics, social sciences as well as in other areas. Mathematically they perfectly suit to model the evolution of statistical configurations of all kinds of biotypes (genome, phenotypes e.t.c.) both for finite or continuous populations. The reader is referred to [13, 17] for a comprehensive and updated review of the topic. The list of very recent articles and online presentations is long. Let us only mention [18, 19, 25, 26], where the notion of quadratic stochastic operators is put into abstract vector (Banach) spaces with specific order or norm structures. In [24] the author studies nonhomogeneous Markov chains on ordered Banach spaces which are strongly linked to some picture of quadratic stochastic operators. Namely, as it has been proved in [7], generated by a quadratic stochastic operator \({\mathbb {V}}\) the so-called associated Markov chains may be efficiently used to determine the behavior of \({\mathbb {V}}^n \).

There has been much interest in recent years in self-organizing search methods in the q.s.o. field. Recently Ganikhodjaev, Saburov and Muhitdinov (see [15]) have generalized the notion of q.s.o. to bilinear forms on \(\sigma \)-additive measures on [0, 1]. In particular, points of the unit interval [0, 1] serve to code (continuum valued) traits attributed to each individual from a considered population. As usual children inherit their traits from (two) parents, who mate randomly. The paper [15] drops the Mendelian paradigm and introduces trends (however, only in a one-dimensional direction), which are steady in time. The authors proved in [15] regularity in the case when there is no mutation and an inherited trait comes (randomly) from one of its parents. In this paper we propose further extensions. In particular, we obtain regularity under essentially weaker constraints. Moreover, our methods applied to theorems and examples from [15] simplify existing proofs.

Instead of one particular trait we propose to characterize an individual by infinite dimensional set of parameters, encoded by vectors from an order interval \(S = [0, f]\) in a fixed real Banach lattice \((F, \Vert \cdot \Vert , \le )\). Let us very briefly recall basic notions necessary to formulate our results (regarding the theory of Banach lattices and other facts from functional analysis the reader is referred to [2] or [27]). A Banach space \((F, \Vert \cdot \Vert )\) equipped with a partial order \(\le \) is a Banach lattice if the lattice operations (the infimum \(x\wedge y\) and the supremum \(x\vee y\)) are well defined in *F*, satisfy axioms of Riesz spaces and are compatible with the norm topology (cf. [2], pp. 4, 5, 181 or [27], pp. 47–52). In particular, \(\Vert y \Vert \le \Vert x \Vert \) whenever \(|y| \le |x|\) in *F*. The modulus in *F* is defined as \(|x| = x\vee (-x)\), and therefore \(\Vert |x| \Vert = \Vert x \Vert \) for all \(x\in F\). The positive cone \(F_+ = \{ x\in F{:}\,0 \le x \}\) is a (weakly) closed subset of *F* (cf. [27], Proposition 5.2). Let us mention that for all \(x, y \in F\) we have \( x\vee y = \frac{x + y + | x - y |}{2}\), and \(x\wedge y = \frac{x + y - |x-y|}{2}\). The order interval, with endpoints \(a \le b \in F\), is defined as \(I_{a,b } = [a,b] = \{ x\in F{:}\,a \le x \le b \}\). If \(a = 0\) and \(f\in F_+\), we simply write \(I_f \) in place of \(I_{0, f} = [0,f]\). In the case \(F = {\mathbb {R}}\), with ordinary modulus \(| \cdot |\), order intervals are classical segments \([a, b] = \{ x\in {\mathbb {R}}{:}\,a \le x \le b \}\). It is well known that order intervals in Banach lattices are always bounded, convex and (weakly) closed. However, they are not weakly compact in general. Classical spaces \((L^p(\mu ), \Vert \cdot \Vert _p )\) and \((C(K), \Vert \cdot \Vert _{\sup })\) are important examples of Banach lattices. It follows from the Banach–Alaoglu theorem that order intervals are weakly compact if *F* is reflexive. In particular, if \(F = L^p(\mu )\), where \(1< p < \infty \) (using different arguments also in \(L^1(\mu )\)), then order intervals are weakly compact. However, this does not hold for *C*(*K*) or \(L^{\infty }(\mu )\). We recall that the weak topology on a Banach space \((F, \Vert \cdot \Vert )\) is the smallest topology \({\mathcal {T}} \) so that all norm continuous linear functionals \(\xi \in F'\) are \({\mathcal {T}}\) continuous. The weak topology is denoted by \({\mathcal {T}}_w\) and it is a locally convex topology generated by the basis consisting of neighborhoods \(\mathcal {U}_{\xi _1, \ldots , \xi _n, \varepsilon } = \{ u\in F{:}\,|\xi _j (u)| < \varepsilon , \ j = 1, \ldots , n \}\) of the zero vector \(0 \in F\), where \(n \in \mathbb {N}\), \(\xi _1, \ldots , \xi _n \in F'\), and \(\varepsilon > 0\). The net \(x_{\alpha }\) converges weakly to *x* in *F* if and only if for every fixed \(\xi \in F'\) we have \(\lim _{\alpha } \xi (x_{\alpha }) = \xi (x)\). Weak compactness plays in the category of Banach lattices an important role (cf. [2], chapter 4.2).

*S*coincide. We denote the Borel \(\sigma \) field in

*S*by \(\mathcal {B}\). As usual \(\delta _x\) stands for the Dirac measure at \(x \in S\). Compactness of

*S*implies (cf. \(\S 6\) in [10]) that the convex set \({\mathcal {P}}(S)\) of all probability measures \(\mu \), on the measurable space \((S, \mathcal {B} )\), is compact (metrizable) for the weak measure convergence. We recall that a sequence of probability measures \(\mu _n \in {\mathcal {P}}(S)\) converges to \(\mu \in {\mathcal {P}}(S)\) in the weak convergence of measures if \(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty } \int _S fd\mu _n \rightarrow \int _S f d\mu \) holds for all \({\mathcal {T}}_w\) continuous (bounded) functions \(f{:}\, S \rightarrow {\mathbb {R}}\). Then we write \(\mu _n \Rightarrow \mu \). In order not to overexploit the term “weak” (especially in two different contexts) we shall use the notion of the Fortet–Mourier norm. We recall that given a finite Borel (signed) measure \(\mu \) on

*S*, the Fortet–Mourier norm is defined as \(\Vert \mu \Vert _{\mathrm{FM}} = \sup \{ |\int f d\mu |{:}\,\ 0 \le f \le 1 \ \mathrm{and } \ \mathrm{Lip} f \le 1 \}\) (cf. [22], p. 48). As the reader may guess, given a continuous function \(f{:}\,S \rightarrow {\mathbb {R}}\)

*S*compatible with the relative weak topology \({\mathcal {T}}_{w}|_{S}\) on the set

*S*(the choice of a specific metric \(\varrho _S\) is not crucial). It is well known (see [22], p. 49, theorem 1.46) that on the space \({\mathcal {P}}(S)\) the convergence \(\mu _n \Rightarrow \mu \) holds if and only if \(\Vert \mu _n - \mu \Vert _{\mathrm{FM}} \rightarrow 0\).

By bar\((\mu )\) we denote the barycenter of \(\mu \), as long as it exists. We understand it as the Pettis integral \(\int _F z d\mu (z)\); i.e. \( \xi (\mathrm{bar}(\mu )) = \xi (\int _F z d\mu (z) ) = \int _F \xi (z) d\mu (z)\) for all \(\xi \in F'\). Clearly bar\((\mu )\) is well defined if the topological support supp\((\mu )\) is weakly compact (cf. [1], pp. 10–12).

We denote \(i(\mu ) = \inf \) supp\((\mu )\), \(s(\mu ) = \sup \) supp\((\mu )\) and \(I(\mu ) = [i(\mu ), s(\mu )]\) as long as all is well defined. For this, let us suppose that *F* has an order continuous norm (cf. [2], pp. 185–186) and supp\((\mu )\) is contained in an order interval \(I_{a,b} = [a, b] \subseteq F_+\). Clearly, \(r_n = x_1\wedge \cdots \wedge x_n \in I_{a, b}\), if \(x_j \in \) supp\((\mu )\), \(n = 1, 2, \ldots \). Hence \(\Vert r_n \Vert \ge \Vert a \Vert \) is bounded from below. Using induction method and the property of norm order continuity (cf. [2], Theorem 4.9, p. 186) we may construct a sequence \((x_j)_{j\ge 1}\) such that \(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty } r_n = r\in [a, b]\) exists and the norm \(\Vert r \Vert \) is as small as possible (we can take a dense sequence \(x_j \in \) supp\((\mu )\) actually). Notice that \( r \le x \) for all \(x\in \) supp\((\mu )\). If \(v \le x\) for all \(x\in \) supp\((\mu )\), then \(v\le x_j\) for all *j*, hence \(v\le r_n\) for all *n* and finally \(v \le r\). In particular, \(r = i(\mu )\) does exist (however not necessarily \(r\in \) supp\((\mu )\)). Similarly we obtain the existence of \(s(\mu )\).

## 2 Basics on quadratic stochastic operators

- (2.1)
\(P(x,y,\cdot ) = P(y,x, \cdot ) \in {\mathcal {P}}(S)\) for all \(x,y \in S\),

- (2.2)
\( S\times S \ni (x,y) \rightarrow P(x,y, A ) \in [0,1]\) is measurable for every fixed \(A\in \mathcal {B} \).

*quadratic transition probability function*. If moreover it satisfies

- (2.3)
\( S\times S \ni (x,y) \rightarrow P(x,y, \cdot ) \in {\mathcal {P}}(S)\) is continuous, where \(S\times S\) is endowed with the weak \(\times \) weak topology and in \({\mathcal {P}}(S) \) we have the Fortet–Mourier norm \(\Vert \cdot \Vert _{\mathrm{FM}}\),

*Feller*[clearly the condition (2.3) implies (2.2)].

Let us mention briefly, that quadratic transition functions can be used to define perhaps the simplest class of nonlinear Markov processes \(\{ \xi _k \}_{k\ge 0}\). We will not dwell on this subject but rather focus only on the evolution and weak limits of distributions \(P(\xi _k \in \cdot )\). However, the problem of behavior of trajectories \(\xi _k(\omega )\), or the rate of convergence, remains untouched.

### Definition 2.1

A *quadratic stochastic operator* (generated by the family \(\mathbb {P}\)) is defined as \({\mathbb {V}}(\mu ) = Q(\mu , \mu )\). It is called *Feller* if the quadratic transition probability function \(\mathbb {P}\) is *Feller* [i.e. when (2.3) holds].

### Definition 2.2

*weakly regular*if

*weak mixing*.

Depending on the (topological) point of view different modes of convergence are distinguished. To connect our results with other contemporary studies we recall (cf. [4, 7]) the following notions:

### Definition 2.3

*strongly regular*if

*strong mixing*.

The uniform convergence give us:

### Definition 2.4

*uniformly regular*if

*norm mixing*.

Strong and norm mixing q.s.o. and their geometric structure have been recently described in [4, 5, 7]. The weak mixing is studied in [6]. However, Bartoszek et al. [6] is restricted to kernel quadratic stochastic operators. In particular, \(P(x, y, \cdot ) \) are assumed to be absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure and additionally \(\int z P(x, y, dz ) = \frac{x+y}{2}\) for all *x*, *y* (roughly speaking—the offspring is on average the mean of the parents). Such operators are called centred kernel q.s.o. On the other hand, the models considered in [6] generally apply to unbounded phase spaces. Their weak limit of \({\mathbb {V}}^n(f)\) may be (depending on *f*) both discrete (Dirac \(\delta \)) or other probability measures, depending to what extent the CLT works. Mathematical methods used in their proofs come from the theory of characteristic functions, making it difficult to obtain closed form statements about the limits. In our paper we focus solely on weak regularity, assuming bounded domains and we look what happens if the evolution has a trend. In particular, our quadratic transition probabilities are not centred. We may consider our approach as generalizations of [15] and complementary to [6].

If for all \(x, y \in S \) the measure \(P(x,y, \cdot )\) is a convex combination of \(\delta _x, \delta _y\), then the q.s.o. \({\mathbb {V}}\) is called Volterra. Clearly the Volterra q.s.o. can only model the mutation free evolution. The Mendelian situation occurs when \(P(x,y, \cdot ) = 0.5\delta _x + 0.5\delta _y\). We notice that in the last case \({\mathbb {V}}(\mu ) = \mu \) for all \(\mu \in {\mathcal {P}}(S)\).

Following [15], when \(S = [0,1]\) and \(F = {\mathbb {R}}\), Volterra q.s.o. are called Lebesgue q.s.o. It has been proved (see Theorem 4.6 in [15]) that any Lebesgue q.s.o. such that \(P(x,y, \cdot ) = p\delta _{x\wedge y}(\cdot ) + (1-p)\delta _{x\vee y}(\cdot ) \), with \(P(x,x, \cdot ) = \delta _x(\cdot )\) is weakly regular, and the iterates \({\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu )\) converge to \( \delta _{i(\mu )}\), if \(0.5 < p\le 1\) or respectively to \(\delta _{s(\mu )}\) if \(0 \le p < 0.5\) (when \(p = 0.5\) then \({\mathbb {V}}\) is the identity transformation).

Our approach brings further extensions, with two folded generalizations. Firstly, in the case of Lebesgue operators \({\mathbb {V}}\) on \(S = [0,1]\), we only assume that \(P(x,y, \cdot ) = \alpha (x,y)\delta _{x\wedge y}(\cdot ) + (1-\alpha (x,y))\delta _{x\vee y}(\cdot ) \), where \(\alpha (x,y) > 0.5\) for all \(x \ne y \in [0,1]\) (or \(\alpha (x,y) < 0.5\) for all \(x \ne y \in [0,1]\) respectively). We will show that this condition may be relaxed further (see our Corollaries 5.1 and 5.2). In particular, we do not require the Volterra condition. Secondly, we shall extend Ganikhodjaev’s, Saburov’s and Muhitdinov’s results from [15] to general phase spaces, assuming that \(S = I\) is a weakly compact order interval. Let us recall (cf. [2], Theorem 4.9) that order intervals in Banach lattices with order continuous norm are weakly compact. And finally, in general Banach lattices the notion of Lebesgue q.s.o. may split in different directions. For this let us only mention that \(\alpha (x,y)\delta _{x\wedge y}(\cdot ) + (1-\alpha (x,y))\delta _{x\vee y}(\cdot ) \) is not necessarily a convex combination of \(\delta _x, \delta _y\).

## 3 Monotonicity of means and regularity

### Theorem 3.1

- (3.1)
\(\int _I z P(x,y, dz ) \le \frac{x+y}{2} \), for all \(x, y \in I\).

- (3.2)
the equality in (3.1) implies \(x = y\),

- (3.3)
supp\(P(x,y, \cdot ) \subseteq [x\wedge y, x\vee y]\) for all \(x,y \in I\).

### Proof

*n*

*I*. It follows (cf. [2], Theorem 4.9, p. 186) that bar\(({\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu ))\) converges (in the norm) to a vector \(c(\mu ) \in [0, f]\).

*x*,

*y*). Now, applying the additional assumption (3.2), we get \(x=y\) for \(\nu \times \nu \) almost all (

*x*,

*y*). Hence \(\nu = \delta _{c(\mu )}\). Since \(n_j\) was arbitrary (with only restriction that \({\mathbb {V}}^{n_j}(\mu )\) converges), thus \(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }{\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu ) = \delta _{c(\mu )}\).

The next result concerns a specific class of quadratic transition probabilities. They generalize the notion of Lebesgue quadratic stochastic operators introduced in [15].

### Definition 3.2

*F*. A quadratic transition probability family \(\{ P(x,y, \cdot )\}_{x,y \in S}\) is called order cramped if

Obviously supp\((P(x,y, \cdot )) \subseteq [x\wedge y, x\vee y]\). If \( F = \mathbb {R}\) then we obtain a Volterra q.s.o.. Finally if \(\alpha , \beta \) are weakly continuous on \(S\times S\), then we get a Feller order cramped q.s.o..

### Theorem 3.3

*F*with order continuous norm. If

*I*is weakly metrizable, the functions \(\alpha \) and \(\beta \) are weakly continuous and \(\alpha (x,y ) > \beta (x,y)\) if \(x \ne y\), then the corresponding q.s.o. \({\mathbb {V}}\) is weakly regular, and for all \(\mu \in {\mathcal {P}}(\mu )\)

### Proof

## 4 Finite dimensional case

In the finite dimensional case, when \(F = \mathbb {R}^d\) and the q.s.o. is Lebesgue, the last result may be strengthen. We assume that in \(\mathbb {R}^d \) we have the standard order, so the positive cone is \(\mathbb {R}^d_+ = \{ (x_1,\ldots ,x_d){:}\,x_j \ge 0, j = 1,\ldots ,d \} \). The lattice norm \(\Vert \cdot \Vert \) may be taken arbitrary as all norms on finite dimensional vector spaces are equivalent (or apply Corollary 4.4 from [2]).

### Theorem 4.1

### Proof

*I*. Notice that, whenever \(\varrho < \varepsilon \varrho _*\), then \(\mathcal {U}_{\varrho }(r_k ) \subseteq [i(\mu ), u_k ] = W_{u_k}\). In fact, for all \(j \in J\) if \(x\in \mathcal {U}_{\varrho }(r_k)\), then \(x_j \le s(\mu )_j = u_{k, j}\). On the other hand, if \(j\notin J\), then

*J*runs over all subsets of \(\{ 1, 2, \dots , d \}\). If \(\sum _{J}(\alpha _J (x,y)+ \beta _J(x,y)) = \frac{1}{2} \), then

*J*.

### Proposition 4.2

### Proof

*J*. Hence (3.1) is satisfied. If \(x\ne y\) then \( (x\wedge y)_J - (\frac{x+y}{2})|_J \lneqq 0\) for some \(J \subseteq \{ 1, 2, \ldots , d \}\). Hence (3.2) holds. Applying Theorem 3.1 we end the proof. \(\square \)

## 5 Final conclusions and examples

### Theorem 5.1

### Proof

By symmetry the following version of weak regularity holds;

### Theorem 5.2

Even in the one-dimensional case, when \(F = \mathbb {R}\) and \(I = [0,1]\), the question on weak regularity of q.s.o. is nontrivial. In particular, it is a challenge to find a pattern of general limit measures. In the example below we see that the condition on the global mean monotonicity may be relaxed.

### Example 5.3

Let \({\mathbb {V}}\) be the Lebesgue q.s.o. corresponding to \(\alpha \) (i.e. \(P(x,y, \cdot ) = \alpha (x,y)\delta _{x\wedge y} + (1 - \alpha (x,y))\delta _{x\vee y }\ \)). We recall that intervals \([a,b] \subseteq [0,1]\) are invariant for Lebesgue q.s.o. \({\mathbb {V}} \) (i.e. if supp\((\mu ) \subseteq [a, b]\) then supp\(({\mathbb {V}}(\mu )) \subseteq [a, b]\)). Hence \(\{ P(x, y, \cdot )\}\) restricted to [*a*, *b*] generates a q.s.o. which coincides with \({\mathbb {V}}|_{{\mathcal {P}}([a, b])}\). The same trick which is used in the proof of Theorem 5.1 gives the convergence of \(\gamma _n = {\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu )([i(\mu ), i(\mu ) + \tau )) \rightarrow 1\), for every probability Borel measure \(\mu \) on [0, 1] such that \(\mu ([0, u)) >0 \). It follows that \(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\Vert {\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu ) - \delta _{i(\mu )}\Vert _\mathrm{FM} = 0\). On the other hand if \(\mu ((v, 1]) = 1 \), then by the Theorem 5.2 we obtain \(\lim _{n\rightarrow \infty }\Vert {\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu ) - \delta _{s(\mu )}\Vert _\mathrm{FM} = 0\).

*n*and every Borel \(A\subseteq [u, v]\), we have \({\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu ) (A) = \mu (A)\). Hence the sequence \({\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu )\) restricted to the interval [

*u*,

*v*] is constant; i.e. \({\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu )|_{[u,v]} = \mu |_{[u,v]}\). If \(\mu ([u, 1]) = 1\) and \(\mu ((v, 1]) > 0 \) let \(\mu _1 = \mu |_{[u,v]}\), \(\mu _2 = \mu |_{(v, 1]}\) and consider \(A = [s(\mu ) - \tau , s(\mu )]\), where \(0< \tau < s(\mu ) - v\). Then

*n*, thus by the above estimation (replace there \(\mu \) by \({\mathbb {V}}^n(\mu )\)) we get a recursion

*u*, 1], we have

*Problem* Describe weakly regular Lebesgue quadratic operators in the one-dimensional case, for general symmetric (continuous) \(\alpha (x, y)\), and identify limit measures.

## References

- 1.Alfsen, E.M.: Compact Convex Sets and Boundary Integrals. Springer, Berlin (1971)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
- 2.Aliprantis, C.D., Burkinshow, O.: Positive Operators. Springer, Berlin (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Barański, K., Misiurewicz, M.: Omega-limit sets for the Stein–Ulam spiral map. Topol. Proc.
**36**, 145–172 (2010)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 4.Bartoszek, K., Pułka, M.: Asymptotic properties of quadratic stochastic operators on \(L^1\) spaces. Nonlinear Anal. Theory Methods Appl.
**114**, 26–39 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 5.Bartoszek, K., Pułka, M.: Prevalence problem in the set of quadratic stochastic operators acting on \(L^1\). Bull. Malay. Math. Sci. Soc. (2015). doi: 10.1007/s40840-015-0245-7
- 6.Bartoszek, K., Domsta, J., Pułka, M.: Centred Quadratic Stochastic Operators. arXiv:1511.07506v1
- 7.Bartoszek, W., Pułka, M.: On mixing in the class of quadratic stochastic operators. Nonlinear Anal. Theory Methods Appl.
**86**, 95–113 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 8.Bernstein, S.N.: Mathematical problems in modern biology. Sci. Ukr.
**1**, 14–19 (1922).**(in Russian)**Google Scholar - 9.Bernstein, S.N.: Solution of a mathematical problem related to the theory of inheritance. Uch. Zap. n.-i. kaf. Ukrainy
**1**, 83–115 (1924).**(in Russian)**Google Scholar - 10.Billingsley, P.: Convergence of Probability Measures. Wiley, New York (1968)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
- 11.Ganikhodjaev, N.: On stochastic processes generated by quadratic operators. J. Theor. Prob.
**4**, 639–653 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 12.Ganikhodjaev, N., Ganikhodjaev, R., Jamilov, U.: Quadratic stochastic operators and zero-sum game dynamics. Ergod. Theory Dyn. Syst.
**35**(5), 1443–1473 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 13.Ganikhodjaev, N., Mukhamedov, F.: Quantum Quadratic Operators and Processes, Lectures Notes in Mathematics, vol. 2133. Springer, Berlin (2015)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
- 14.Ganikhodjaev, N., Saburov, M., Nawi, A. M.: Mutation and chaos in nonlinear models of heredity. Sci. World J.
**2014**, 1–11 (2014). arXiv:1304.5710v1 - 15.Ganikhodjaev, N., Saburov, M., Muhitdinov, R.: On Lebesgue nonlinear transformations. Bull. Korean Math. Soc.
**54**(2), 607–618 (2017)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 16.Ganikhodjaev, R.: A family of quadratic stochastic operators that act in \(S^2\). Dokl. Akad. Nauk Uz.
**1**, 3–5 (1989)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar - 17.Ganikhodjaev, R., Mukhamedov, F., Rozikov, U.: Quadratic stochastic operators and processes: results and open problems. Infin. Dimens. Anal. Quantum Probab. Relat. Top.
**14**(2), 270–335 (2011)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar - 18.Ganikhodjaev, R., Mukhamedov, F., Saburov, M.: Elliptic Quadratic Operator Equations. (2017). arXiv:1701.01990v1
- 19.Jamilov, U.U., Scheutzow, M., Wilke-Berenguer, M.: On the random dynamics of Volterra quadratic operators. Ergod. Theory Dyn. Syst.
**37**(1), 228–243 (2017)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 20.Kesten, H.: Quadratic transformations: a model for population growth I. Adv. Appl. Probab.
**2**, 1–82 (1970)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 21.Kesten, H.: Quadratic transformations: a model for population growth II. Adv. Appl. Probab.
**2**, 179–228 (1970)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 22.Lasota, A.: Układy dynamiczne na miarach. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ślaskiego (2008)Google Scholar
- 23.Lyubich, Y.I.: Mathematical Structures in Population Genetics. Springer, Berlin (1992)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
- 24.Mukhamedov, F.: Uniform stability and weak ergodicity of non homogeneous Markov chains defined on ordered Banach spaces with a base. Positivity
**20**(1), 135–153 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 25.Mukhamedov, F., Embong, A.F.: Uniqueness of Fixed Points of b-Bistochastic Quadratic Stochastic Operators and Associated Nonhomogeneous Markov Chains. (2016). arXiv:1601.04297v1
- 26.Mukhamedov, F., Taha, M.H.B.M.: On Volterra and orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators. Miskolc. Math. Notes
**17**(1), 457–470 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar - 27.Schaefer, H.H.: Banach Lattices and Positive Operators. Springer, Berlin (1974)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
- 28.Ulam, S.: A Collection of Mathematical Problems. Interscience, New York (1960)Google Scholar
- 29.Zakharevich, M.: On behavior of trajectories and the ergodic hypothesis for quadratic transformations of the simplex. Russ. Math. Surv.
**33**(6), 265–266 (1978)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright information

**Open Access**This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.