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Photosynthetica

, Volume 56, Issue 4, pp 1081–1092 | Cite as

Effects of GeO2 on chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant enzymes in apple leaves under strong light

  • Z. B. Wang
  • Y. F. Wang
  • J. J. Zhao
  • L. Ma
  • Y. J. Wang
  • X. Zhang
  • Y. T. Nie
  • Y. P. Guo
  • L. X. Mei
  • Z. Y. Zhao
Original paper
  • 76 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, we chose apple leaf as plant material and studied effects of GeO2 on operation of photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant enzyme activities under strong light. When exogenous GeO2 concentration was below 5.0 mg L–1, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry increased significantly compared with the control under irradiances of 800 and 1,600 μmol(photon) m–2 s–1. Photosynthetic electron transport chain capacity between QA–QB, QA–PSI acceptor, and QB–PSI acceptor showed a trend of rising up with 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg(GeO2) L–1 and declining with 10.0 mg(GeO2) L–1. On the other hand, dissipated energy via both ΔpH and xanthophyll cycle decreased remarkably compared with the control when GeO2 concentration was below 5.0 mg L–1. Our results suggested that low concentrations of GeO2 could alleviate photoinhibition and 5.0 mg(GeO2) L–1 was the most effective. In addition, we found, owing to exogenous GeO2 treatment, that the main form of this element in apple leaves was organic germanium, which means chemical conversion of germanium happened. The organic germanium might be helpful to allay photoinhibition due to its function of scavenging free radicals and lowering accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which was proven by higher antioxidant enzyme activities.

Additional key words

chlorophyll fluorescence irradiance photodamage photosynthetic electron transport chain 

Abbreviations

ABS

absorption flux

ABS/RC

absorption flux per reaction center of PSII

ABS/CS0

absorption flux per sample cross section

APX

ascorbate peroxidase

CAT

catalase

CS

phenomenological energy fluxes per excited cross section

DHAR

dehydroascorbate reductase

DI0/CS0

dissipated energy flux per sample cross section

DI0/RC

dissipated energy flux per reaction center of PSII

DM

dry mass

FM

fresh mass

FM

maximal fluorescence

F0

initial fluorescence

Fv/FM

maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII

FV'/FM'

actual photochemical efficiency

FS

steady-state fluorescence

GPX

guaiacol peroxidase

GR

glutathione reductase

MDHAR

monodehydroascorbate reductase

NPQ

nonphotochemical quenching coefficient

OJIP

fast chlorophyll fluorescence transients

PETC

photosynthetic electron transport chain

POD

peroxidase

qP

photochemical quenching coefficient

RC

specific energy fluxes per active PSII reaction center

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SOD

superoxide dismutase

TR0/CS0

flux of energy trapping per sample cross-section

TR0/RC

flux of energy trapping per reaction center of PSII

VI

relative variable fluorescence at the I-step

VJ

relative variable fluorescence at the J-step

ΦNO

quantum yield of non-light-induced nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching

ΦNPQ

quantum yield of light-induced ΔpH and zeaxanthin-dependent

ΦPSII

actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry

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Copyright information

© The Institute of Experimental Botany 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. B. Wang
    • 1
  • Y. F. Wang
    • 1
  • J. J. Zhao
    • 1
  • L. Ma
    • 1
  • Y. J. Wang
    • 1
  • X. Zhang
    • 1
  • Y. T. Nie
    • 1
  • Y. P. Guo
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. X. Mei
    • 1
  • Z. Y. Zhao
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.College of HorticultureNorthwest A&F UniversityYangling, ShaanxiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Horticulture Plant Biology and Germplasm Innovation in Northwest China, Ministry of AgricultureNorthwest A&F UniversityYangling, ShaanxiChina
  3. 3.Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for AppleYangling, ShaanxiChina

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