International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

, Volume 39, Issue 1, pp 52–60 | Cite as

Impact of pharmaceutical care on cardiovascular risk among older HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy

  • Elza Aparecida Machado Domingues
  • Mónica Ferrit-Martín
  • Miguel Ángel Calleja-Hernández
Research Article


Background Advances in the treatment of HIV infection have enabled better control of the disease, allowing patients to enjoy a longer life expectancy. However, the ageing of patients leads to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Various studies have found that pharmaceutical care results in better control of cardiovascular risk factors. Objective To measure the impact of pharmaceutical care on cardiovascular risk in patients older than 50 years receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Setting Outpatient pharmacy service of a tertiary hospital, Spain. Methods A pre/post-intervention quasi-experimental clinical study was conducted in which health education and pharmacist interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk factors were carried out in a single patient cohort using the Dader method of pharmacotherapy, with a 12-month follow-up period per patient. Patients included were older than 50 years, with moderate/elevated cardiovascular risk. Data were obtained from patient clinical histories, dispensing records and patient interviews, and were subjected to statistical analysis. Main outcome measure Cardiovascular risk estimated by SCORE and REGICOR equations. Results Forty-two patients completed the study. Of these, 93 % were men, with an average age of 57 years and 15 years since diagnosis of HIV. A reduction was observed in the mean values (baseline vs. 12 months) of the following cardiovascular risk factors: systolic blood pressure (P = 0.009), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.010), total cholesterol (P = 0.006), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; P = 0.039), triglycerides (P = 0.010) and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c; P < 0.001). An increase in HDL-c (P = 0.037) was also observed. The average cardiovascular risk estimated by the SCORE instrument was reduced from 7.6 % at the beginning of the study to 6.4 % after 12 months (P = 0.039). The risk estimate according to REGICOR also decreased (P = 0.002). Over the 12-month period, 6.3 ± 3.4 interventions were carried out per patient. Quantitative ineffectiveness was the most prevalent negative outcome associated with medication throughout the study, and noncompliance was the most frequent cause. Interventions on health education were the most common, followed by interventions on improving adherence. Conclusion Pharmaceutical care, delivered as a combination of health education and pharmacotherapy follow-up to outpatients at a tertiary hospital, had a positive impact on cardiovascular risk in patients older than 50 years receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.


HIV Older patients Pharmaceutical care Pharmacotherapy follow-up Spain 



This article is part of the doctoral thesis of Elza Domingues within the Doctoral Programme in Clinical Medicine and Public Health, Granada University, Spain. We acknowledge support from the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) Foundation, Brazil; the staff of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Spain; and Manuela Expósito Ruiz, FIBAO (Biohealth Research Foundation of Eastern Andalusia), Spain, for statistical analysis.


Research presented here was supported by funding from the CAPES Foundation, Brazil, process no. 0675/13-0.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11096_2016_387_MOESM1_ESM.docx (25 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal University of Mato Grosso do SulCampo GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Doctoral Programme in Clinical Medicine and Public HealthGranada UniversityGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Pharmacy Clinical Management DepartmentVirgen de las Nieves University HospitalGranadaSpain

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