Pharmacists performing quality spirometry testing: an evidence based review
- 396 Downloads
The scope of pharmacist services for patients with pulmonary disease has primarily focused on drug related outcomes; however pharmacists have the ability to broaden the scope of clinical services by performing diagnostic testing including quality spirometry testing. Studies have demonstrated that pharmacists can perform quality spirometry testing based upon international guidelines.
Aim of the review
The primary aim of this review was to assess the published evidence of pharmacists performing quality spirometry testing based upon American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) guidelines. In order to accomplish this, the description of evidence and type of outcome from these services were reviewed.
A literature search was conducted using five databases [PubMed (1946–January 2015), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews] with search terms including pharmacy, spirometry, pulmonary function, asthma or COPD was conducted. Searches were limited to publications in English and reported in humans. In addition, Uniform Resource Locators and Google Scholar searches were implemented to include any additional supplemental information.
Eight studies (six prospective multi-center trials, two retrospective single center studies) were included. Pharmacists in all studies received specialized training in performing spirometry testing. Of the eight studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 (100 %) demonstrated acceptable repeatability of spirometry testing based upon standards set by the ATS/ERS guidelines. Acceptable repeatability of seven studies ranged from 70 to 99 % consistent with published data.
Available evidence suggests that quality spirometry testing can be performed by pharmacists. More prospective studies are needed to add to the current evidence of quality spirometry testing performed by pharmacists and to measure health outcomes of the pulmonary patient.
KeywordsLiterature review Pharmacist Pharmacy services Pulmonary function testing Spirometry
The authors did not receive funding support for this project.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 9.Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Updated 2014. [cited 2015 April 6]. http://www.goldcopd.org/uploads/users/files/GOLD_Report_2014_Jan23.pdf.
- 10.National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Expert panel report 3: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. [cited 2015 April 9]. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/asthgdln.pdf.
- 13.DeTullio PL, Corson ME. Effect of pharmacist counseling on ambulatory patients’ use of aerosolized bronchodilators. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1987;44(8):1802–6.Google Scholar
- 14.Emmerton LM, Smith L, LeMay KS, Krass I, Saini B, Bosnic-Anticevich SZ et al. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia. BMC Health Services Research 2012;12:164. [cited 2015 May 1]. http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6963-12-164.pdf.
- 18.Gissing PM, Burton DL, Simpson MD, Burton MA, Bowman SL. Pharmaceutical care: impact on asthma medication use. J Pharm Pract Res. 2004;34:26–9.Google Scholar
- 19.Midodzi WK, Mayers I, Rowe B, Vathanayagam D, Chan M, Alwashmi M, et al. Validity of the Piko-6 portable device for screening for obstructive airways disease in a community pharmacy practice. American Thoracic Society International Conference. Poster B45. [cited 2015 May 3]. http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2013.187.1_MeetingAbstracts.A2846.
- 22.Simpson M, Burton D, Burton M, Bowman S. Impact of spirometry on pharmacists decision to refer. Australian Pharm. 2005;24(12):964–8.Google Scholar
- 23.Kennedy DT, Paulson DM, Eddy TD, Patel PC, Patkar AD, Holdford DA, et al. A smoking-cessation program consisting of extensive counseling, pharmacotherapy, and office spirometry: results of a pilot project in a veterans administration medical center. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(10):1400–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Corlett SA, Howes K, Salter M, Krska J Evaluation of a community pharmacy spirometry testing service for current and recent ex-smokers. In: 9th pharmaceutical care network Europe working conference 2015. Abstract #32. [cited 2015 April 22]. http://www.pcne.org/script25.php?abstractid=32.
- 27.Burton D, Simpson M, Wettenhall J, Armour C, Bosnic-Anticevitch S, Saini B, et al. Acceptability and utility of spirometry measurements in the pharmacy asthma care program. In: 2006 annual scientific meetings, the thoracic society of Australia and New Zealand and The Australian and New Zealand Society of Respiratory Science, Western Australia: Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. [cited 2015 April 8]. http://www.nddmed.com/downloads/Download_00132_00.pdf.
- 32.Fuller L, Conrad WF, Heaton PC, Panos R, Eschenbacher W, Frede SM. Pharmacist-managed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening in a community setting. J Am Pharm Assoc. 1012;52:e59–66.Google Scholar
- 36.The Global Asthma Report (2014) [cited May 6, 2015]. http://www.globalasthmareport.org/burden/burden.php.
- 37.World Health Organization. Chronic respiratory diseases. Burdon of COPD, [cited May 2, 2015]. http://www.who.int/respiratory/copd/burden/en/.