Coronary heart disease risk screening: the community pharmacy Healthy Heart Assessment Service
- 251 Downloads
Objectives We examined the characteristics and CHD risks of people who accessed the free Healthy Heart Assessment (HHA) service operated by a large UK pharmacy chain from August 2004 to April 2006. Methods Associations between participants’ gender, age, and socioeconomics were explored in relation to calculated 10-year CHD risks by cross-tabulation of the data. Specific associations were tested by forming contingency tables and using Pearson chi-square (χ2). Results Data from 8,287 records were analysable; 5,377 were at low and 2,910 at moderate-to-high CHD risk. The likelihood of moderate-to-high risk for a male versus female participant was significantly higher with a relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.72 (P < 0.001). A higher percentage of those in socioeconomic categories ‘constrained by circumstances’ (RRR 1.15; P < 0.05) and ‘blue collar communities’ (RRR 1.13; P < 0.05) were assessed with moderate-to-high risk compared to those in ‘prospering suburbs’. Conclusions People from ‘hard-to-reach’ sectors of the population, men and people from less advantaged communities, accessed the HHA service and were more likely to return moderate-to-high CHD risk. Pharmacists prioritised provision of lifestyle information above the sale of a product. Our study supports the notion that pharmacies can serve as suitable environments for the delivery of similar screening services.
KeywordsCardiovascular disease Community pharmacy services Counselling Directive counselling Health promotion Lipid modifying agents Risk factors United Kingdom
The authors would like to thank Tracey Thornley and Kam Gill for their contribution and all the pharmacists who provided the service. The authors would also like to acknowledge Elaine Hartley, Harvinder Sondh and Gary Choo for the design and implementation of the HHA service.
Conflicts of interest
MvdB works for the pharmacy chain where the service was provided.
- 1.Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee, National Pharmacy Association, Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, PharmacyHealthLink. Public health: a practical guide for community pharmacists. 2004. http://www.rpsgb.org.uk/pdfs/pubhlthguidcommph.pdf. Accessed 26 Feb 2009.
- 2.Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee. Essential Service—Promotion of healthy lifestyles (Public Health). Service specification. 2007. http://www.psnc.org.uk/data/files/PharmacyContractandServices/EssentialServices/service20spec20es42020promotion20of20healthy20lifestyles20_v220sept2007_.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2009.
- 3.Blenkinsopp A, Celino G. Long term conditions: integrating community pharmacy. Report 3. London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and Webstar Health; 2006. http://www.rpsgb.org/pdfs/ltcondintegcommphrept3.pdf. Accessed 26 Feb 2009.
- 6.Area Classification for Output Areas—Cluster Summaries. Office for National Statistics. 2005. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/about/methodology_by_theme/area_classification/. Accessed 27 Feb 2009.
- 8.Wilkins D, Payne S, Granville G, Branney P. The gender and access to health services study. Final report (Men’s Health Forum and University of Bristol) for Department of Health. London: Department of Health; 2008. http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_092041.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2009.
- 9.Purcell H, Daly C, Petersen S. Coronary heart disease in men (reversing the ‘descent of man’). In: Kirby R, et al., editors. Men’s health. London: Taylor & Francis; 2004. p. 101–9.Google Scholar
- 10.National Health Service. The NHS Plan. A plan for investment. A plan for reform. London: HMSO; 2000. http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4055783.pdf. Accessed 10 Sept 2009.