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Neurochemical Research

, Volume 41, Issue 1–2, pp 130–143 | Cite as

The Role of 3-O-Sulfogalactosylceramide, Sulfatide, in the Lateral Organization of Myelin Membrane

  • Sara Grassi
  • Simona Prioni
  • Livia Cabitta
  • Massimo Aureli
  • Sandro Sonnino
  • Alessandro Prinetti
Original Paper

Abstract

Sulfatide (3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide, SM4s) was isolated by Thudichum from the human brain in 1884. Together with galactosylceramide, its direct metabolic precursor in the biosynthetic pathway, sulfatide is highly enriched in myelin in the central and peripheral nervous system, and it has been implicated in several aspects of the biology of myelin-forming cells. Studies obtained using galactolipid-deficient mice strongly support the notion that sulfatide plays critical roles in the correct structure and function of myelin membrane. A number of papers are suggesting that these roles are mediated by a specific function of sulfatide in the lateral organization of myelin membrane, thus affecting the sorting, lateral assembly, membrane dynamics and also the function of specific myelin proteins in different substructures of the myelin sheath. The consequences of altered sulfatide metabolism and sulfatide-mediated myelin organization with respect to myelin diseases are still poorly understood, but it’s very likely that sulfatide might represent not only a critical player in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease, but also a potentially promising therapeutic target.

Keywords

Sulfatide Lipid rafts Lipid membrane domains Sphingolipids Multiple sclerosis 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

CGT

UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase

CNS

Central nervous system

CST

Cerebroside sulfotransferase

DRM

Detergent-resistant membrane

ECM

Extracellular matrix

GalCer

Galactosylceramide

GlcCer

Glucosylceramide

MAG

Myelin-associated glycoprotein

MBP

Myelin basic protein

MOG

Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

MS

Multiple sclerosis

NCAM

Neural cell adhesion molecule

NF155

Neurofascin 155

PC

Phosphatidylcholine

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

PLP

Proteolipid protein

PNS

Peripheral nervous system

POPC

1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine

SM

Sphingomyelin

Sulfatide

3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (SM4s)

UDP-Gal

UDP-galactose

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Grassi
    • 1
  • Simona Prioni
    • 1
  • Livia Cabitta
    • 1
  • Massimo Aureli
    • 1
  • Sandro Sonnino
    • 1
  • Alessandro Prinetti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational MedicineUniversity of MilanSegrateItaly

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