Multimedia Tools and Applications

, Volume 74, Issue 2, pp 439–462 | Cite as

Semantically connected web resources with MPEG-21

  • H. CastroEmail author
  • M. T. Andrade
  • F. Almeida
  • G. Tropea
  • N. Blefari Melazzi
  • A. S. Mousas
  • D. I. Kaklamani
  • L. Chiariglione
  • A. Difino


The Web is rapidly becoming the prime medium for human socialization. The resources that enable that process (social web sites, blogs, media objects, etc.) present growing complexity and, collectively, weave an ever more intricate web of relationships. Current technology for declaring those relationships is predominantly implicit, ambiguous and semantically poor. As a consequence, their automatic assessment is complex and error prone, preventing the satisfaction of users’ needs such as effective semantic searches. To address these limitations, whilst enabling the explicit declaration of semantically unambiguous relationships between digital resources, a solution employing structured semantic descriptors and ontologies was conceived, based on MPEG-21. This paper explains the functioning of the devised mechanism, and goes beyond that, into the definition of two novel employment venues for it, at the service of two real-world usage scenarios. These demonstrate the mechanism’s added value as a powerful alternative for the semantically aware interconnection of web resources, and highlight the increased QoE that said mechanism enables.


Semantic Web Relationships MPEG-21 DID DII Cloud QoE Content Search Metadata RDF/OWL 



The work here described was accomplished within the framework of the CONVERGENCE project [6]. The authors would like to thank all the CONVERGENCE partners for the fruitful collaboration, in particular those who have contributed to the development of the CONVERGENCE use cases. CEDEO and CNIT’s work for this paper was also carried out within the framework of the FP7/NICT EU-JAPAN GreenICN ( project.

The work presented in this paper was partially supported by: Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology within project FCT/UTA-Est/MAI/0010/2009; the North Portugal Regional Operational Program (ON.2 – O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), through the European Regional, Development Fund (ERDF).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Castro
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. T. Andrade
    • 1
  • F. Almeida
    • 1
  • G. Tropea
    • 2
  • N. Blefari Melazzi
    • 2
  • A. S. Mousas
    • 3
  • D. I. Kaklamani
    • 3
  • L. Chiariglione
    • 4
  • A. Difino
    • 4
  1. 1.INESC TECFaculty of Engineering of Oporto UniversityPortoPortugal
  2. 2.CNITUdR Roma Tor VergataRomeItaly
  3. 3.NTUASchool of Electrical and Computer EngineeringAthensGreece
  4. 4.CEDEO.netTurinItaly

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