Are science parks and incubators good “brand names” for spin-offs? The case study of Turin
- 968 Downloads
In recent years there has been an increasing focus on universities’entrepreneurial orientation and their ability to exploit and transfer scientific knowledge to the commercial sector. Spin-off firms are recognised as an important opportunity for universities. This paper aims to examine the university spin-off firm context, with particular attention to the relationship with science parks-incubators and their importance as brand names. Evidence is taken from Turin case-study. Turin has a consolidated university framework: the University and the Polytechnic are examples of success all around Europe. A particular characteristic of Turin is given by the presence of two science and technology parks and two incubators.
KeywordsResearch spin-offs Science parks Incubators Brand names Technology transfer
JEL classificationO3 L2
The author thanks the Centre de Recherche en Gestion (CRG) de l’Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, and the Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, Italian National Research Council (Ceris-CNR), Moncalieri-Turin, for the hospitality provided during this research work. She is also grateful to Pierre-Jean Benghozi and Jean-Michel Dalle for their helpful suggestions. Financial support from the Italian National Research Council (CNR) under the ‘Promotion of Research 2005’ programme is gratefully acknowledged.
- Ananth, M. S. (2009). Indian science and technology parks. In C. W. Wessner (Ed.), Understanding research, science and technology parks: Global best practice: Report of a symposium (pp. 61–66). National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12546.html.
- ANGLE Technology. (2003). Evaluation of the past and future economic contribution of the UK science park movement. London: UKSPA.Google Scholar
- Balconi, M., Breschi, S., & Lissoni, F. (2002). Il Trasferimento di Conoscenze Tecnologiche dall’Università all’Industria in Italia: Nuova Evidenza sui Brevetti di Paternità dei Docenti, Dipartimento di Economia Politica e Metodi Quantitativi, Università degli Studi di Pavia.Google Scholar
- Baldini, N., Grimaldi, R., & Sobrero, M. (2007). Diffusion of organisational practices in turbulent environments: An empirical analysis of university-level patent regulations. Paper presented at the 2007 Academy of management meeting, Philadelphia, August 3–8.Google Scholar
- Benghozi, P.-J., Bureau, S., & Massit-Folléa, F. (2009). L’internet des objets: quels enjeux pour l’Europe ?, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris.Google Scholar
- Benneworth, P., & Charles, D. (2004). University spin-off policies and economic development in less successful regions: Learning from two decades of policy practice. Paper presented at the conference Regionalization of innovation policy—options and experiences, Berlin, June 4–5.Google Scholar
- Calabrese, G., & Erbetta, F. (2005). Factors of performance in a context of market change: The automotive district of Turin. In F. Garibaldo & A. Bardi (Eds.), Company strategies and organisational evolution in the automotive sector: A worldwide perspective (pp. 213–250). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
- Cantamessa, M. (2007). Come fare scouting di idee di impresa della ricerca. In M. Patrissi (Ed.), Ricerca, Spin-off, Incubatori: strategie ed opportunità per le università italiane (pp. 31–35). Torino: PNI Cube.Google Scholar
- Cesaroni, F., & Gambardella, A. (1999). Dai “contenitori” ai “contenuti”: i parchi scientifici e tecnologici in Italia. In C. Antonelli (Ed.), Conoscenza tecnologica: nuovi paradigmi dell’innovazione e specificità italiana. Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli: Torino.Google Scholar
- Clarysse, B., Lockett, A., Quince, T., & Van de Velde, E. (2002). Spinning off new ventures: A typology of facilitating services, Institute for the promotion of innovation by science and technology in Flanders. IWT-Observatory, Innovation, Science, Technology, 41.Google Scholar
- Commission of the European Communities. (2003). The Role of the Universities in the Europe of Knowledge, Communication from the Commission COM (2003) 58 final, Brussels.Google Scholar
- Crimmins, J. C. (2000). Better measurement and management of brand value. Journal of Advertising Research, 40(6), 136–144.Google Scholar
- Davies, J. (2009). The English experience. In C. W. Wessner (Ed.), Understanding research, science and technology parks: Global best practice: Report of a symposium (pp. 70–74). National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12546.html.
- Degroof, J.-J., & Roberts, E. (2003). Spinning-off new ventures from academic institutions in areas with weak entrepreneurial infrastructure: Insights on the impact of spin-off processes on the growth-orientation of ventures. MIT Sloan School of Management, Working Paper 4311-03.Google Scholar
- Degroof, J.-J., & Roberts, E. (2004). Overcoming weak entrepreneurial infrastructures for academic spin-off ventures. MIT, Industrial Performance Center, Working Paper Series, MIT-IPC-04-005.Google Scholar
- European Trend Chart on Innovation. (2002). The changing role as public support to academic spin-offs, Policy Benchmarking Workshop, February 19–20, 2002, European Commission, Enterprise Directorate-General Innovation/SMEs Programme.Google Scholar
- Goktepe, D., Etzkowitz, H. (2005). Towards an assisted linear model of innovation: An exploratory study of technology transfer offices in the USA. Paper presented at the conference: TripleHelix5, the capitalization of knowledge: Cognitive, economic, social & cultural aspects, May 18–21.Google Scholar
- Gupte, M. (2007). Success of university spin-offs. Network activities and moderating effects of internal communication and adhocracy. Kiel: Deutscher Universitats-Verlag.Google Scholar
- Harrison, R. T., & Leitch, C. M. (2007). Dynamics of university spin-out companies: Entrepreneurial ventures or technology lifestyle businesses? In B. Clarysse, J. Roure, & T. Schamp (Eds.), Entrepreneurship and the financial community. Starting up and growing new businesses. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Kohli, C., & LaBahn, D. W. (1997). Observations: Creating effective brand names: A study of the naming process. Journal of Advertising Research, 37(1), 67–75.Google Scholar
- Link, A. N. (2009). The evaluation challenge. In C. W. Wessner (Ed.), Understanding research, science and technology parks: Global best practice: Report of a symposium (pp. 117–120). National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12546.html.
- Lockett, A., Siegel, D., Wright, M., Ensley, M. (2005). The creation of spin-off firms at public research institutions: Managerial and policy implications. Research Policy, 34(7), 981–993.Google Scholar
- McMahan, R. (2009). The role of SBIR and state awards. In C. W. Wessner (Ed.), Understanding research, science and technology parks: Global best practice: Report of a symposium (pp. 114–117). National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12546.html.
- Moray, N., & Clarysse, B. (2005). Institutional change and resource endowments to science-based entrepreneurial firms. Research Policy, 34(7), 1010–1027.Google Scholar
- Mowery, D. C., & Sampat, B. N. (2005). Universities in national innovation systems. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. et Nelson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 209–239). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Murray, F. (2004). The role as academic inventors in entrepreneurial firms: Sharing the laboratory life. Research Policy, 33(4), 643–659.Google Scholar
- Mustar, P. (1997). Spin-off enterprises. How French academics create hi-tech companies: The conditions for success or failure. Science and Public Policy, 24(1), 37–43.Google Scholar
- O’Sullivan, M. (2005). Finance and innovation. In J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery, & R. R. et Nelson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of innovation (pp. 240–265). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Parry, M., & Russell, P. (Eds.). (2000). The planning, development and operation of science parks. UKSPA, Birmingham: The United Kingdom Science Park Association (UKSPA).Google Scholar
- Phan, P. H. (2009). Importance of the right metrics. In C. W. Wessner (Ed.), Understanding research, science and technology parks: Global best practice: Report of a symposium (p. 67). National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12546.html.
- Piccaluga, A., & Balderi, C. (2006a). Consistenza ed Evoluzione delle Imprese Spin-off della Ricerca Pubblica in Italia. Finlombarda: IN-SAT Lab.Google Scholar
- Piccaluga, A., & Balderi, C. (2006b). La Valorizzazione della Ricerca nelle Università Italiane. Quarto Rapporto Annuale. NetVal, CRUI, ProTon Europe.Google Scholar
- Piedmont Region. (2004). DOCUP Piemonte.Google Scholar
- Piedmont Regional Council. (2006). Sistema regionale piemontese per la ricerca e l’innovazione. Linee generali di intervento (L.R. n. 4/2006, art. 4), Piedmont Region.Google Scholar
- Pirnay, F., Surlemont, B., & Nlemvo, F. (2003). Toward a typology of university spin-offs. Small Business Economics, 21(4), 355–369.Google Scholar
- Powers, J. B., & McDougall, P. (2005). Policy orientation effects on performance with licensing to start-ups and small companies. Research Policy, 34(7), 1028–1042.Google Scholar
- ProInnoEurope. (2006). European innovation scoreboard 2006. Comparative analysis of innovation performance. MERIT and Joint Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Roberts, E. (1991). High stakes for high-tech entrepreneurs: Understanding venture capital decision making. Sloan Management Review, 32(2), 9–20.Google Scholar
- Rowe, D. (2002). Science parks in the United Kingdom today and tomorrow. APTE conference proceedings.Google Scholar
- Sancin, P. (Ed.). (1999). R&S, innovazione tecnologica e sviluppo del territorio: il ruolo dei parchi scientifici. Trieste: Area SciencePark.Google Scholar
- Schumpeter, J. (1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Serazzi, G. (2005). University incubators. Journal of the Politecnico di Milano, (9), 18–31.Google Scholar
- Shane, S. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship. University spinoffs and wealth creation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Verspagen, B. (2006). University research, intellectual property rights and european innovation systems. DIME Working Paper n. 2, Eindhoven Centre for Innovation Studies.Google Scholar
- Wessner, C. W. (Ed.). (2009). Understanding research, science and technology parks: Global best practice: Report of a symposium. National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12546.html.
- Wright, M., Clarysse, B., Mustar, P., & Lockett, A. (2007). Academic entrepreneurship in Europe. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar