Factors Associated With Current Smoking Among Off-Reserve First Nations and Métis Youth: Results From the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey
- 389 Downloads
First Nations and Métis, two of Canada’s constitutionally recognized Indigenous groups, suffer from poorer overall health than non-Indigenous Canadians. Current smoking, a known predictor of chronic health conditions, is close to twice as prevalent among Indigenous youth as it is among non-Indigenous Canadian youth. However, little population-level research has examined the correlates of current smoking among this population. Guided by a health framework centered on Indigenous-specific determinants, we used data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to examine the correlates of current smoking among First Nations and Métis youth aged 15–17 years living outside of First Nations reserves. Using binary logistic regression, we investigated how culturally specific factors, namely knowledge of an Indigenous language, participation in traditional activities, and family members’ attendance at residential schools, were correlated with current smoking. We also considered demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related correlates. Overall, an estimated 20.6% of First Nations and Métis youth reported current smoking. We found no significant associations between culturally specific activities and current smoking in the multivariate analyses, although those who spoke an Indigenous language were more likely to smoke. Those who participated in sports more often were less likely to smoke, and respondents who reported heavy drinking and who were from families with lower income were more likely to smoke. Gender, body mass index, urban/rural geography and regional geography, and mother’s highest level of education were not significantly correlated with smoking. The results of our study support prior research that has found a disturbingly high prevalence of current smoking among Indigenous youth, compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. Our results highlight the importance of considering sports participation, co-occurring health-risk behaviours and socioeconomic factors when developing interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of smoking among First Nations and Métis youth.
KeywordsIndigenous population First Nations Métis Smoking Youth Canada
Funding was provided by operating grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC, Grant No. 329323).
Compliance With Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- American Lung Association. (2012). Cutting tobacco’s rural roots: Tobacco use in rural communities. http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/lung-disease-data/cutting-tobaccos-rural-roots.pdf. Accessed 2 May 2015.
- Barkwell, L., Dorion, L., & Hourie, A. (2006). Métis legacy. Michif culture, heritage, and folkways, vol. 2. Saskatoon: Gabriel Dumont Institute.Google Scholar
- Bobo, J. K., & Husten, C. (2000). Sociocultural influences on smoking and drinking. Alcohol Research & Health: The Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 24(4), 225–232.Google Scholar
- Canadian Center on Substance Abuse (CCSA). (2015). Canada’s low-risk alcohol drinking guidelines. http://www.ccsa.ca/Resource%20Library/2012-Canada-Low-Risk-Alcohol-Drinking-Guidelines-Brochure-en.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2015.
- Cloutier, E., & Langlet, É. (2014) Aboriginal Peoples Survey, 2012: Concepts and methods guide. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-653-x/89-653-x2013002-eng.pdf. Accessed 30 January 2015.
- Elton-Marshall, T., Leatherdale, S. T., & Burkhalter, R. (2011). Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve: Results from the youth smoking survey. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 183(8), E480–E486. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.101913.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Fulkerson, J. A., & French, S. A. (2003). Cigarette smoking for weight loss or control among adolescents: Gender and racial/ethnic differences. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 32(4), 306–313. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00566-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gionet, L., & Roshanafshar, S. (2013). Health at a glance: Select health indicators of First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2013001/article/11763-eng.htm. Accessed 4 April 2015.
- Health Canada. (2013). Canadian tobacco use monitoring survey (CTUMS). http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/tobac-tabac/research-recherche/stat/ctums-esutc_2012-eng.php#tabc. Accessed 25 March 2015.
- Health Canada. (2014): Tobacco: First Nations & Inuit health. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/substan/tobac-tabac/index-eng.php. Accessed 2 March 2015.
- Janz, T., Seto, J., & Turner, A. (2009). Aboriginal Peoples Survey, 2006: An overview of the health of the Métis population. Ottawa, Ontario. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-637-x/89-637-x2009004-eng.htm. Accessed 22 March 2015.
- Leatherdale, S. T., & Rynard, V. (2013). A cross-sectional examination of modifiable risk factors for chronic disease among a nationally representative sample of youth: Are Canadian students graduating high school with a failing grade for health? BMC Public Health. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-569.Google Scholar
- Leatherdale, S. T., Wong, S. L., Manske, S. R., & Colditz, G. A. (2008). Susceptibility to smoking and its association with physical activity, BMI, and weight concerns among youth. Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 10(3), 499–505. doi: 10.1080/14622200801902201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lowry, R., Galuska, D. A., Fulton, J. E., Wechsler, H., & Kann, L. (2002). Weight management goals and practices among U.S. high school students: Associations with physical activity, diet, and smoking. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 31(2), 133–144. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00408-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mitrou, F., Cooke, M., Lawrence, D., Povah, D., Mobilia, E., Guimond, E., et al. (2014). Gaps in indigenous disadvantage not closing: A census cohort study of social determinants of health in Australia, Canada, New Zealand from 1981–2006. BMC Public Health. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-201.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Potter, B. K., Pederson, L. L., Chan, S. S., Aubut, J. A., & Koval, J. J. (2004). Does a relationship exist between body weight, concerns about weight, and smoking among adolescents? An integration of the literature with an emphasis on gender. Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 6(3), 397–425. doi: 10.1080/14622200410001696529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ryan, C. J., Cooke, M., Leatherdale, S. T., Kirkpatrick, S. I., & Wilk, P. (2015). The correlates of smoking among adult Métis: Evidence from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey and Métis supplement. The Canadian Journal of Public Health, 106(5), e271–e276. doi: 10.17269/CJPH.106.5053.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soto, C., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., Schwartz, S. J., & Unger, J. B. (2015). Stressful life events, ethnic identity, historical trauma, and participation in cultural activities: Associations with smoking behaviors among American Indian adolescents in California. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 64–69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Statistics Canada. (2012a). The Aboriginal Peoples Survey. http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=3250&lang=en&db=imdb&adm=8&dis=2. Accessed 3 April 2015.
- Statistics Canada. (2012b). Census dictionary. Canada: Minister of Industry, 2013. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/ref/dict/98-301-X2011001-eng.pdf. Accessed 30 January 2015.
- Statistics Canada. (2013). 2011 National Household Survey: Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-011-x/99-011-x2011001-eng.cfm. Accessed 14 May 2015.
- Statistics Canada. (2014). Heavy drinking, 2013. Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 82-625-X. Ottawa. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2014001/article/14019-eng.htm. Accessed 29 December 2014.
- Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2012). Canada, Aboriginal Peoples and residential schools: They came for the children. Winnipeg: The Commission. https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ-AI/STAGING/texte-text/abo_demo2013_1370443844970_eng.pdf.
- Windle, M. (2003). Alcohol use among adolescents and young adults. Population, 45(5.9), 19.Google Scholar