6-Pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one: A Potent Peach-Derived Kairomone for New Zealand Flower Thrips, Thrips obscuratus
New Zealand flower thrips, Thrips obscuratus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are attracted to ripening fruits, especially peaches. Volatiles from unripe and ripe peach fruits were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Six lactones were found only in ripe peach volatiles: γ-heptalactone, γ-octalactone, γ-nonalactone, 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, γ-decalactone, and δ-decalactone. When these compounds were tested individually in field-trapping experiments, three of them (γ-octalactone, γ-nonalactone, and 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one) attracted New Zealand flower thrips. In another field-trapping experiment, aimed at testing various combinations of the three active compounds, no synergistic effects were found among all combinations tested; no combination caught more thrips than 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, alone. A further field-trapping experiment was conducted to determine the dose (10, 100, and 500 mg) of 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one that gave the greatest catch of T. obscuratus, while also comparing it against another attractant, ethyl nicotinate, for T. obscuratus. The greatest catches in traps baited with either attractant were at loadings of 500 mg. At both 10 and 500 mg, traps baited with 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one caught more T. obscuratus than those baited with the same amounts of ethyl nicotinate. 6-Pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one is a potent attractant for New Zealand flower thrips and, therefore, could be used for monitoring and control of New Zealand flower thrips. Work is underway developing monitoring and control options utilizing 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one for this important pest.
KeywordsThrips obscuratus Ripe peach Lactones 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one Kairomone Thysanoptera Thripidae
This work was supported by the New Zealand Foundation for Research Science and Technology (CO6X0811, Integrated Pest Management in Horticulture) and Summerfruit New Zealand. We thank John Revell for helping with chemical analysis and Table 1. We thank Mr. Bruce Tweedy for allowing us to conduct experiments in his orchard.
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