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The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Children: Cross-Cultural Assessment with a New Self-Report Measure

  • Vicente E. Caballo
  • Isabel C. Salazar
  • Benito Arias
  • Marta Calderero
  • María J. Irurtia
  • Thomas H. Ollendick
  • CISO-A Research Team
Article
  • 534 Downloads

Abstract

This study describes a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses that were conducted with the 44-item Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Children- 4th version (SAQ-CIV) to identify a reduced set of items that might be used to construct a new abbreviated instrument for measuring social anxiety in children and adolescents. The fourth version of the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Children (SAQ-CIV) was administered to 12,801 non-clinical participants (ages 9 to 15 years) from 12 Latin American countries and Spain. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 6-factor structure of social anxiety in children, replicating a similar structure to that of adults (Caballo et al. in Behavioral Psychology/Psicología Conductual, 18(1), 5–34, 2010; Caballo et al. in Behavior Therapy, 43(2), 313–328, 2012): 1) Interactions with the opposite sex, 2) Criticism and embarrassment, 3) Speaking in public/Talking to teachers, 4) Assertive expression of annoyance and disgust, 5) Performing in public, and 6) Interactions with strangers. Each of the factors contains 4 items, yielding an abbreviated 24-item instrument, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Children (SAQ-C). The present results suggest this is a reliable, valid, and culturally sensitive instrument to assess social anxiety in youth.

Keywords

Social anxiety Social phobia Children Adolescents Self-report measure SAQ-C 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

This study was partially supported by Fundacion VECA for the Advancement of Clinical Behavioral Psychology (FUNVECA), and the manuscript’s translation was supported financially by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and by the regional government of Andalusia as part of the University of Granada’s program “Fortalecimiento de la I+D+i”

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from schools and/or parents and/or primary caregivers of the experiment participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

Author Vicente E. Caballo declares that he has no conflict of interest

Author Isabel C. Salazar declares that she has no conflict of interest

Author Benito Arias declares that he has no conflict of interest

Author Marta Calderero declares that she has no conflict of interest

Author María J. Irurtia declares that she has no conflict of interest

Author Thomas H. Ollendick declares that he has no conflict of interest

Author Vicente E. Caballo (in name of CISO-A Research Team) declares that he has no conflict of interest

Experiment Participants

All procedures performed in this research were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vicente E. Caballo
    • 1
  • Isabel C. Salazar
    • 2
  • Benito Arias
    • 3
  • Marta Calderero
    • 4
  • María J. Irurtia
    • 5
  • Thomas H. Ollendick
    • 6
  • CISO-A Research Team
  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.FUNVECA Center of Clinical PsychologyGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ValladolidValladolidSpain
  4. 4.Sagrada Familia SchoolGranadaSpain
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ValladolidValladolidSpain
  6. 6.Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA

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