Brief Report: DSM-5 Sensory Behaviours in Children With and Without an Autism Spectrum Disorder
- 1.8k Downloads
Atypical responses to sensory stimuli are a new criterion in DSM-5 for the diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but are also reported in other developmental disorders. Using the Short Sensory profile (SSP) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised we compared atypical sensory behaviour (hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual sensory interests) in children aged 10–14 years with (N = 116) or without an ASD but with special educational needs (SEN; N = 72). Atypical sensory behaviour was reported in 92 % of ASD and 67 % of SEN children. Greater sensory dysfunction was associated with increased autism severity (specifically restricted and repetitive behaviours) and behaviour problems (specifically emotional subscore) on teacher and parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires but not with IQ.
KeywordsAutism spectrum disorder Sensory reactivity Sensory interests DSM-5 Diagnostic criteria Behaviour
We are grateful to the children and families and the clinical teams in South Thames, whose participation and collaboration made the study possible.
This study was funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Department of Health (Grant Number 039/0026).
All of the individuals listed as authors on this manuscript contributed to the study design, data collection and or data analysis along with manuscript preparation. All authors have read the manuscript and agreed to its submission for publication. All authors meet the appropriate authorship criteria, nobody who qualifies for authorship has been omitted, all contributors and funding sources have been properly acknowledged, and authors and contributors have approved the acknowledgement of their contributions.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Dr Green declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dr Chandler declares that she has no conflict of interest. Prof Charman declares that he has no conflict of interest. Prof Simonoff declares that she has no conflict of interest. Prof Baird declares that she has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all parents for their and their child’s participation in the study.
- American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-III (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders III-R. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Asperger, H. (1944). Autistic Psychopathy in Children. Autism and Asperger syndrome (U. Frith, Trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1991).Google Scholar
- Ausderau, K., Sideris, J., Furlong, M., Little, L. M., Buluck, J., & Baranek, G. T. (2014). National survey of sensory features in children with ASD: Factor structure of the sensory experience questionnaire (3.0). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 915–925. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1945-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). The Lancet, 368(9531), 210–215. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69041-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ben-Sasson, A., Cermak, S. A., Orsmond, G. I., Carter, A. S., & Fogg, L. (2008). Can we differentiate sensory over-responsivity from anxiety symptoms in toddlers? Perspectives of occupational therapists and psychologists. Infant Mental Health Journal, 28, 536–558. doi: 10.1002/imhj.20152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dunn, W. (1999). The sensory profile manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. The Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
- Lane, S. H., Reynolds, S., & Dumenci, L. (2012). Sensory overresponsivity and anxiety in typically developing children and children with autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: cause or coexistence? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66, 595–603. doi: 10.5014/ajot.2012.004523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- LeCouteur, A., Lord, C., & Rutter, M. (2003). The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook, E. H, Jr., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., et al. (2000). The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule—Generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(3), 205–223. doi: 10.1023/A:1005592401947.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McIntosh, D. N., Miller, L. J., Shyu, V., & Dunn, W. (1999b). Development and validation of the short sensory profile. In W. Dunn (Ed.), Sensory profile manual (pp. 59–73). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1990a). Coloured progressive matrices. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Raven, J. C., Court, J. H., & Raven, J. (1990b). Standard progressive matrices. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). The social communication questionnaire: Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Sparrow, S. S., Balla, D. A., & Cicchetti, D. V. (1984). Vineland adaptive behavior scales. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- StataCorp, L. (2009). Stata version 11.0. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
- Tavassoli, T., Bellesheim, K., Siper, P. M., Wang, A. T., Halpern, D., Gorenstein, M., et al. (2016). Measuring sensory reactivity in autism spectrum disorder: Application and simplification of a clinician-administered sensory observation scale. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(1), 287–293. doi: 10.1007/s10803-015-2578-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (1991). WISC-III: Wechsler intelligence scale for children: Manual. London: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Wigham, S., Rodgers, J., South, M., McConachie, H., & Freeston, M. (2015). The interplay between sensory processing abnormalities, intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety and restricted and repetitive behaviours in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(4), 943–952. doi: 10.1007/s10803-014-2248-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnosis criteria for research (DCR-10). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar