The Journal of Value Inquiry

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 195–216 | Cite as

Intuitions, Rationalizations, and Justification: A Defense of Sentimental Rationalism



Moral Judgment Moral Reasoning Affective Response Moral Belief Cognitive Dissonance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I thank Jochen Bojanowski, Joel Rickard, Sabine Roeser, Hanno Sauer, Markus Schlosser, and Peter Timmerman for helpful comments.


  1. J. Allman and J. Woodward, “What Are Moral Intuitions and Why Should We Care About Them? A Neurobiological Perspective,” Philosophical Issues 18 (2008): 164–85.Google Scholar
  2. K. Aquino and A. Reed, “The Self-Importance of Moral Identity,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83 (2002): 1423–40.Google Scholar
  3. R. Audi, The Good in the Right: A Theory of Intrinsic Value (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  4. R. Audi, Moral Perception (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2013).Google Scholar
  5. A. Bandura, C. Barbaranelli, G.V. Caprara, and C. Pastorelli, “Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71 (1996): 364–74.Google Scholar
  6. A. Bandura, “Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Humanities,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 3 (1999): 193–209.Google Scholar
  7. C.D. Batson, D. Kobrynowicz, J.L. Dinnerstein, H.C. Kampf, and A.D. Wilson, “In a Very Different Voice: Unmasking Moral Hypocrisy,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72 (1997): 1335–48.Google Scholar
  8. C.D. Batson, E.R. Thompson, G. Seuferling, H. Whitney, and J.A. Strongman, “Moral Hypocrisy: Appearing Moral to Oneself Without Being So,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77 (1999): 525–37.Google Scholar
  9. M.S. Bedke, “Intuitional Epistemology in Ethics,” Philosophy Compass 5 (2012): 1069–83.Google Scholar
  10. S. Chaiken, R. Giner-Sorolla, and S. Chen, “Beyond Accuracy: Defense and Impression Motives in Heuristic and Systematic Information Processing,” in P.M. Gollwitzer and J.A. Bargh (eds.), The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior (New York, Guilford Press, 1996), 553–78.Google Scholar
  11. S. Clarke, “SIM and the City: Rationalism and Psychology and Haidt’s Account of Moral Judgment,” Philosophical Psychology 21 (2008): 799–820.Google Scholar
  12. D. Copp, “Experiments, Intuitions, and Methodology in Moral and Political Theory,” in R. Shafer Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics: Volume 7 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012), 1–36.Google Scholar
  13. R. Cowan (forthcoming) “Clarifying Ethical Intuitionism,” European Journal of Philosophy, doi:  10.1111/ejop.12031.
  14. J. Craigie, “Thinking and Feeling: Moral Deliberation in a Dual-Process Framework,” Philosophical Psychology 24 (2012): 53–71.Google Scholar
  15. J. D’Arms and D. Jacobson, “Sentiment and Value,” Ethics 118 (2000): 722–48.Google Scholar
  16. D. Davidson, “Actions, Reasons and Causes,” Journal of Philosophy 60 (1963): 685–700.Google Scholar
  17. P.H. Ditto, D.A. Pizarro, and D. Tannenbaum, “Motivated Moral Reasoning,” in D.M. Bartels, C.W. Baliman, L.J. Skitka, and D.L. Medin (eds.), Psychology of Learning and Motivation, vol. 50 (2009): 307–38.Google Scholar
  18. J.S.B.T. Evans, “Dual-Processing Accounts of Reasoning, Judgment, and Social Cognition,” Annual Review of Psychology 59 (2008): 255–78.Google Scholar
  19. L. Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1957).Google Scholar
  20. C. Fine, “Is the Emotional Dog Wagging Its Rational Tail or Chasing It?,” Philosophical Explorations 9 (2006): 83–98.Google Scholar
  21. J.D. Greene, “The Secret Joke of Kant’s Soul,” in W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 3: The Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development (Cambridge (MA), MIT Press, 2008), 35–79.Google Scholar
  22. J.D. Greene, R.B. Sommerville, L.E. Nystrom, J.M. Darley, and J.D. Cohen, “An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment,” Science 293 (2001): 2105–08.Google Scholar
  23. J. Haidt, F. Björklund, and S. Murphy (2000) “Moral Dumbfounding: When Intuition Finds No Reason,” Unpublished Manuscript.Google Scholar
  24. J. Haidt, “The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral Judgment,” Psychological Review 108 (2001): 814–34.Google Scholar
  25. J. Haidt, The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics And Religion (Pantheon Books, 2012).Google Scholar
  26. J. Haidt, S.H. Koller, and M.G. Dias, “Affect, Culture, and Morality, or Is it Wrong to Eat Your Dog?,” Attitudes and Social Cognition 56 (1993): 613–28.Google Scholar
  27. M. Huemer Ethical Intuitionism (New York, Palgrave MacMillan, 2005).Google Scholar
  28. P. Johansson, L. Hall, S. Sikström, and A. Olsson, “Failure to Detect Mismatches Between Intention and Outcome in a Simple Decision Task,” Science 310 (2005): 116–19.Google Scholar
  29. D. Kahneman, Thinking Fast and Thinking Slow (London, Allen Lane, 2011).Google Scholar
  30. N. Mazar, O. Amir, and D. Ariely, “The Dishonesty of Honest People: A Theory of Self-Concept Maintenance,” Journal of Marketing Research 45 (2008): 633–44.Google Scholar
  31. D. Moore, “Moral Disengagement in Processes of Organizational Corruption,” Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2008): 129–39.Google Scholar
  32. G.E. Moore, Principia Ethica (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1903).Google Scholar
  33. S. Nichols, Sentimental Rules: On the Natural Foundations of Moral Judgment (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).Google Scholar
  34. R. Nisbett and T.D. Wilson, “Telling More than We can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes,” Psychological Review 84 (1977): 231–59.Google Scholar
  35. M.J. Osofsky, A. Bandura, and P.G. Zimbardo, “The Role of Moral Disengagement in the Execution Process,” Law Human Behavior 29 (2005): 371–93.Google Scholar
  36. J. Prinz‚ “The Emotional Basis of Moral Judgments,” Philosophical Explorations 9 (2006): 29–43.Google Scholar
  37. J. Prinz, The Emotional Construction of Morals (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007).Google Scholar
  38. J.M. Paxton, L. Ungar, and J.D. Greene, “Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment,” Cognitive Science 36 (2012): 163–77.Google Scholar
  39. T. Reid, Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (Cambridge (MA), MIT Press, 1969 [1785]).Google Scholar
  40. S. Roeser, Moral Emotions and Intuitions (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).Google Scholar
  41. W.D. Ross, The Right and the Good (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1930).Google Scholar
  42. H. Sauer, “Educated Intuitions. Automaticity and Rationality in Moral Judgment,” Philosophical Explorations 15 (2012a): 255–75.Google Scholar
  43. H. Sauer, “Psychopaths and Filthy Desks: Are Emotions Necessary and Sufficient for Moral Judgment?,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2012b): 95–115.Google Scholar
  44. H. Sidgwick, The Methods of Ethics (London, MacMillan, 1874 [1907]).Google Scholar
  45. T. Wheatly and J. Haidt, “Hyponotic Disgust Makes Moral Judgments More Severe,” Psychological Science 16 (2005): 780–84.Google Scholar
  46. T.D. Wilson, Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious (Cambridge (MA), Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002).Google Scholar
  47. L. Zagzebski, “Emotion and Moral Judgment,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (2003): 104–124.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PhilosophyUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations