Environmental Modeling & Assessment

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 229–238 | Cite as

A comparison of fixed-site and non-fixed-site approaches for species protection

  • Darek J. Nalle
  • Jeffrey L. Arthur

The efficacy of simultaneously advancing two distinct conceptual designs (referred to here as fixed-site and non-fixed-site) for species conservation and protection is addressed. In the literature, numerous models can be found that typically stem from a particular design, but rarely are comparisons made between approaches. This paper presents a more integrated optimization framework that models landowner behavior and species viabilities at a landscape scale. Regional demand for resource extraction is used as the economic driver, a variant of simulated annealing is used to solve the model under different species protection approaches, and a detailed species population simulator is utilized to measure biological responses. When directly comparing the outcomes of different species protection strategies from a case study in Oregon (USA), it was found that neither approach was universally superior in terms of financial value or degree of protection for two late seral forest dependent species.


species conservation operations research resource economics landscape ecology forestry land use nature reserve design forest certification 



We are grateful for the thorough reviews from the guest editor and anonymous referees. Their comments have resulted in a tighter, more focused presentation of this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Natural ResourcesUniversity of IdahoMoscowUSA
  2. 2.Department of StatisticsOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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