Education and Information Technologies

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 2141–2153 | Cite as

Learning online, offline, and in-between: comparing student academic outcomes and course satisfaction in face-to-face, online, and blended teaching modalities

  • Shu-Chen Yen
  • Yafen Lo
  • Angela Lee
  • JudelMay Enriquez


The purpose of this study was to conduct a three-way comparison of face-to-face, online, and blended teaching modalities in an undergraduate Child Development course to determine if there were differences in student academic outcomes and course satisfaction across modalities. Student academic outcomes were measured by three examinations, one research paper assignment, and the overall course total grade. Course satisfaction was measured by administering the Student Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ) across the three teaching modalities and the Constructivist On-Line Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) to online and blended modalities. Results indicated that students performed equally well on all three examinations, research paper, and the overall course total grade across three teaching modalities, allaying traditional reservations about online and blended teaching efficacy. The SOQ and COLLES analysis found students from the three modalities were equally satisfied with their learning experiences. A Two-Factor Model identifying Face-to-Face Interaction and Learn on Demand (Flexibility) as factors determining student academic outcomes was proposed. Implications, limitations, and future research direction were discussed.


Face-to-face Online Blended Student academic outcomes Learning mode comparison 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent StudiesCalifornia State University, FullertonFullertonUSA
  2. 2.California State University, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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