Methods for prevention and constraint of antimicrobial resistance: a review

Abstract

A variety of multidrug-resistant bacteria is blamed for severe infections worldwide. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance constitutes a serious problem for healthcare systems around the world. Here we review techniques for the prevention and constraint of antimicrobial resistance, the risk factors, and the ways by which antimicrobial resistance spreads. We discuss strategies for containment of widespread infections caused by antibacterial drug-resistant bacteria, including internationally recognized guidelines of antibiotic stewardship, educational programs, and behavioral changes. Recent discoveries of novel therapeutic drugs that can be used against antimicrobial resistance are very promising. For instance, antisense oligonucleotides are novel drugs that can be used successfully against resistant bacteria. This technology has many advantages in the development of antibacterial drugs.

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Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by Bulgarian National Science Fund under Grant No. DN13/14/20.12.2017 and partially by the operational programme “Science and Education for Smart Growth” 2014-2020, co-funded by the European union through the European structural and investment funds: Project BG05M2OP001-1.002-0019 “Clean technologies for sustainable environment—water, waste, energy for circular economy” (Clean&Circle CoC) by funding of the experts labor.

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Valsamatzi-Panagiotou, A., Popova, K.B. & Penchovsky, R. Methods for prevention and constraint of antimicrobial resistance: a review. Environ Chem Lett (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-021-01206-x

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Keywords

  • Therapeutic drugs
  • Development
  • Spread
  • Strategies
  • Constraint
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Antibiotic stewardship