Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 8, pp 2073–2083 | Cite as

Inactivated enterovirus 71 with poly-γ-glutamic acid/Chitosan nano particles (PC NPs) induces high cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice

  • Prabuddha S. Pathinayake
  • W. A. Gayan Chathuranga
  • Hyun-Cheol Lee
  • Mohammed Y. E. Chowdhury
  • Moon-Hee Sung
  • Jong-Soo Lee
  • Chul-Joong Kim
Original Article


Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and many neurological manifestations. Recently, this virus has become a serious concern because of consecutive epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region. However, no effective vaccine for EV71 has been discovered except two EV71 vaccines which are being used in local communities of China. To develop a safe and efficient EV71 vaccine candidate, we generated inactivated EV71 and evaluated its efficacy with γ-PGA/Chitosan nanoparticles (PC NPs), which are safe, biodegradable and effective as an adjuvant. The subcutaneous administration of inactivated EV71 with PC NPs adjuvant induces higher levels of virus-specific humoral (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a) and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-γ and IL-4). Additionally, inactivated EV71 with PC NPs adjuvant induces significantly higher virus neutralizing antibody responses compared to the virus only group, and resulted in a long lasting immunity without any noticeable side effects. Together, our findings demonstrate that PC NPs are safe and effective immunogenic adjuvants which may be promising candidates in the development of more efficacious EV71 vaccines.



This work was supported by Chungnam National University

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants by any of the authors. All animal experiments were conducted strictly in accordance with Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (National Research Council, 2011) with the approval of Institutional Animal Care and Use committee of Bioleaders Corporation, Daejeon, South Korea. (reference number: BSL-ABSL-14-000).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prabuddha S. Pathinayake
    • 1
    • 2
  • W. A. Gayan Chathuranga
    • 1
  • Hyun-Cheol Lee
    • 1
  • Mohammed Y. E. Chowdhury
    • 1
    • 3
  • Moon-Hee Sung
    • 4
  • Jong-Soo Lee
    • 1
  • Chul-Joong Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineChungnam National UniversityDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Hunter Medical Research InstituteUniversity of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia
  3. 3.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineChittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityChittagongBangladesh
  4. 4.BioLeaders CorporationDaejeonRepublic of Korea

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