Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 304, Issue 5, pp 631–663 | Cite as

A systematic revision of the Encyclia adenocarpos complex (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) from Megamexico, including two new species from Mexico

  • Germán Carnevali
  • William Cetzal-Ix
  • José L. Tapia-Muñoz
  • Carlos Leopardi
  • José Viccon-Esquivel
  • C. Amílcar Can Sulú
  • Ivón M. Ramírez-Morillo
  • Gustavo A. Romero-González
Original Article


The Encyclia adenocarpos complex is restricted to the Pacific slopes of Megamexico, from Sonora, Mexico, to northern Nicaragua. It is characterized by pyriform to suborbicular pseudobulbs, (1-)2-3(4) thickly coriaceous, narrow leaves (> 15 times longer than wide), thin, verruculose inflorescences, and a verruculose ovary. The column is broad and wingless, fused to the labellum at its proximal 1/4. The flowers of the Encyclia adenocarpos complex feature what is here dubbed the Tupperware© labellum-column morphology, where the columnar ventral face is concave and fits tightly around the rim or upper margins of the callus, similar to the seal of this plasticware. All species grow on dry forests at low elevations from sea level to ca. 1500 m; most populations occurring below 500 m. The complex consists of six species, two of which are newly described herein: E. acapulcensis sp. nov., from southern Guerrero and E. enriquearcilae sp. nov., from western Oaxaca and neighboring Guerrero, Mexico. Encyclia rodolfoi is the correct name for populations of the Tehuantepec Isthmus whereas E. × nizandensis is here regarded as a natural hybrid between E. rodolfoi and E. parviflora; the evidence is presented and discussed. Encyclia schaeferi is treated as a morph of E. papillosa and included in its synonymy. A neotype is selected for Epidendrum adenocarpos and Epidendrum crispatum is rejected as a synonym thereof. All species are illustrated and discussed, and a key to the species is presented. Furthermore, the conservation status of each species is analyzed under the IUCN methodology. Other aspects of the biology of this complex are also discussed.


Comments of biogeography Diversity patterns IUCN Red List Criteria Megamexico Tupperware© labellum-column morphology 



Enrique Arcila Arcila, Eduardo Pérez-García, Denis Szeszko, Claudia Ramírez, Pablo Carrillo, and Alejandro Zavalgoitia provided plant material and photographs that were crucial to the development of this project. Rodrigo Duno de Stefano and Iván Tamayo Cen (CICY), Eduardo Pérez-García (MEXU), and Ramón López (Barquisimeto, Venezuela) contributed discussion and reviews of earlier drafts of the manuscript. Gregorio Amílcar Castillo (CICY) and Juan Pablo Pinzón Esquível (UADY), collaborated in the field work associated with the developement of this project. Jesús García Robles and Cristina Taddei Bringas, from CIAD, Hermosillo, provided logistical support in a collecting trip to the vicinity of Álamos, Sonora in September 2015, for which we are extremely grateful. We are indebted to Felipe Escudero Ganem and Sergio Reynaud for sharing habitat data of E. acapulcensis. Kanchi Gandhi at HUH helped us with nomenclatural matters. Eric Hágsater and colleagues at AMO (Rolando Jiménez Machorro and Luis Sánchez-Saldaña, r.i.p.), helped us with photographs, illustrations, discussion of the species complex, and loaning of critical material. Katya Romero, Edgar Mó, Hermes Vega, and Illiam Rivera, among others contributed photographs of plants in habit that were fundamental to arrive at the species concepts employed here. We thank the curators of the many herbaria that allowed us to study their plant material. This paper would not have been possible without their contribution. This research was partially funded by CONACyT project CB-2011-168640 “Sistemática y Filogenia de Encyclia Hook. (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae), con énfasis en Megaméxico” awarded to the senior author. CL and ACS thank for scholarships granted by CONACyT. The authors acknowledge the American Orchid Society for its support to our Encyclia research through the funding of project “Systematics and evolution of Encyclia Hook. s.s. (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) with emphasis in Megamexico” awarded to GC. Finally, we would like to acknowledge two anonymous reviewers that helped make this a much better article with their suggestions and comments: we are very grateful for their input.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Germán Carnevali
    • 1
    • 2
  • William Cetzal-Ix
    • 1
    • 3
  • José L. Tapia-Muñoz
    • 1
  • Carlos Leopardi
    • 1
    • 4
  • José Viccon-Esquivel
    • 5
  • C. Amílcar Can Sulú
    • 1
  • Ivón M. Ramírez-Morillo
    • 1
  • Gustavo A. Romero-González
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A.C.MéridaMexico
  2. 2.Orchid Herbarium of Oakes AmesHarvard University HerbariaCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Instituto Tecnológico de ChináChináMexico
  4. 4.Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas y AgropecuariasUniversidad de ColimaTecománMexico
  5. 5.Universidad de Loyola del PacíficoAcapulco de JuárezMexico

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