Advertisement

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 51, Issue 6, pp 1637–1656 | Cite as

Crack Damage Parameters and Dilatancy of Artificially Jointed Granite Samples Under Triaxial Compression

Original Paper

Abstract

A database of post-peak triaxial test results was created for artificially jointed planes introduced in cylindrical compression samples of a Blanco Mera granite. Aside from examining the artificial jointing effect on major rock and rock mass parameters such as stiffness, peak strength and residual strength, other strength parameters related to brittle cracking and post-yield dilatancy were analyzed. Crack initiation and crack damage values for both the intact and artificially jointed samples were determined, and these damage envelopes were found to be notably impacted by the presence of jointing. The data suggest that with increased density of jointing, the samples transition from a combined matrix damage and joint slip yielding mechanism to yield dominated by joint slip. Additionally, post-yield dilation data were analyzed in the context of a mobilized dilation angle model, and the peak dilation angle was found to decrease significantly when there were joints in the samples. These dilatancy results are consistent with hypotheses in the literature on rock mass dilatancy.

Keywords

Triaxial testing Artificially jointed samples Dilation Progressive damage Rock mass behavior 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness for partial financial support of this study, awarded under Contract Reference No. BIA2014-53368P. This contract is partially financed by means of ERDF funds of the EU.

References

  1. Alejano LR, Alonso E (2005) Considerations of the dilatancy angle in rocks and rock masses. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 42:481–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alejano LR, Rodríguez-Dono A, Alonso E, Fernández-Manín G (2009) Ground reaction curves for tunnels excavated in different quality rock masses showing several types of post-failure behavior. Tun Undergr Space Technol 24:689–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alejano LR, Alonso E, Rodríguez-Dono A, Fernández-Manín G (2010) Application of the convergence-confinement method to tunnels in rock masses exhibiting Hoek–Brown strain-softening behavior. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47:150–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alejano LR, Arzúa J, Bozorgzadeh N, Harrison JP (2017) Triaxial strength and deformability of intact and increasingly jointed granite samples. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 95:87–103Google Scholar
  5. Archambault G, Rouleau A, Daigneault R, Flamand R (1993) Progressive failure of rock masses by a self-similar anastomosing process of rupture at all scales and its scale effect on their shear strength. Scale Eff Rock Masses 93:133–141Google Scholar
  6. Arzúa J, Alejano LR (2013) Dilation in granite during servo-controlled triaxial strength tests. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 61:43–56Google Scholar
  7. Brace WF, Paulding BW, Scholz CH (1966) Dilatancy in the fracture of crystalline rocks. J Geophys Res 71:3939–3953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cai M, Kaiser PK, Uno H, Tasaka Y, Minami M (2004) Estimation of rock mass deformation modulus and strength of jointed hard rock masses using the GSI system. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cai M, Kaiser PK, Tasaka Y, Minami M (2007) Determination of residual strength parameters of jointed rock masses using the GSI system. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 44:247–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carter TG, Diederichs MS, Carvalho JL (2008) Application of modified Hoek–Brown transition relationships for assessing strength and post yield behaviour at both ends of the rock competence scale. J S Afr Inst Min Metall 108:325–338Google Scholar
  11. Chandler NA (2013) Quantifying long-term strength and rock damage properties from plots of shear strain versus volume strain. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 59:105–110Google Scholar
  12. Cook NGW (1970) An experiment proving that dilatancy is a pervasive volumetric property of brittle rock loaded to failure. Rock Mech 2:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Damjanac B, Fairhurst C (2010) Evidence for a long-term strength threshold in crystalline rock. Rock Mech Rock Eng 43:513–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Detournay E (1986) Elastoplastic model of a deep tunnel for a rock with variable dilatancy. Rock Mech Rock Eng 19:99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diederichs MS (2003) Manuel Rocha medal recipient rock fracture and collapse under low confinement conditions. Rock Mech Rock Eng 36:339–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diederichs MS (2007) The 2003 Canadian geotechnical colloquium: mechanistic interpretation and practical application of damage and spalling prediction criteria for deep tunneling. Can Geotech J 44:1082–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diederichs MS, Martin CD (2010). Measurement of spalling parameters from laboratory testing. In: Rock mechanics and environmental engineering. Paper presented at European rock mechanics symposium, pp 323–326Google Scholar
  18. Diederichs MS, Kaiser PK, Eberhardt E (2004) Damage initiation and propagation in hard rock during tunneling and the influence of near-face stress rotation. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:785–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eberhardt E, Stead D, Stimpson B, Read RS (1998) Identifying crack initiation and propagation thresholds in brittle rock. Can Geotech J 35:222–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Einstein HH, Hirschfeld RC (1973) Model studies on mechanics of jointed rocks. ASCE J Soil Mech Found Div Proc 1973:229–248Google Scholar
  21. Esmaieli K, Hadjigeorgiou J, Grenon M (2010) Estimating geometrical and mechanical REV based on synthetic rock mass models at Brunswick Mine. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47:915–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Εxadaktylos G, Tsoutrelis C (1993) Scale effect on rock mass strength and stability. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on scale effects in rock masses, pp 101–110Google Scholar
  23. Gao FQ, Kang HP (2016) Effects of pre-existing discontinuities on the residual strength of rock mass—insight from a discrete element method simulation. J Struct Geol 85:40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ghazvinian E (2015) Fracture initiation and propagation in low porosity crystalline rocks: implications for excavation damage zone (EDZ) mechanics. Ph.D. Thesis. Queen’s UniversityGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghazvinian E, Perras M, Diederichs MS, Labrie D (2012). Formalized approaches to defining damage thresholds in brittle rock: granite and limestone. In: 46th US rock mechanics/geomechanics symposium. American Rock Mechanics AssociationGoogle Scholar
  26. Hajiabdolmajid V, Kaiser PK, Martin CD (2002) Modelling brittle failure of rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 39:731–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hoek E (1983) Strength of jointed rock masses. Géotechnique 33:187–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoek E, Brown ET (1997) Practical estimates of rock mass strength. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 34:1165–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoek E, Carranza-Torres C, Corkum B (2002) Hoek–Brown failure criterion-2002 edition. Proc NARMS-Tac 1:267–273Google Scholar
  30. ISRM (2007) The complete ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization testing and monitoring: 1974–2006. Prepared by the commission on testing methods, ISRM. Ankara, Turkey: Ulusay R, Hudson JAGoogle Scholar
  31. Jaeger JC, Cook NG, Zimmerman R (2009) Fundamentals of rock mechanics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Ladanyi B, Archambault G (1972) Évaluation de la résistance au cisaillement d′un massif rocheux fragmenté. In: Proceedings of the 24th international geological congress, Montreal; 1972; vol 130: 249–260Google Scholar
  33. Lajtai EZ (1974) Brittle fracture in compression. Int J Frac 10:525–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lajtai EZ (1998) Microscopic fracture processes in a granite. Rock Mech Rock Eng 31:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lajtai EZ, Dzik EJ (1996). Searching for the damage threshold in intact rock.In: Rock mechanics: tools and techniques, Aubertin, Hassani Mitri (eds.), Balkema, 1:701–708Google Scholar
  36. Martin CD (1997) Seventeenth Canadian geotechnical colloquium: the effect of cohesion loss and stress path on brittle rock strength. Can Geotech J 34:698–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Martin CD, Chandler NA (1994) The progressive fracture of Lac du Bonnet granite. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 31:643–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mas Ivars D, Pierce ME, Darcel C, Reyes-Montes J, Potyondy DO, Paul Young R, Cundall PA (2011) The synthetic rock mass approach for jointed rock mass modelling. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 48:219–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Medhurst TP (1996). Estimation of the in situ and deformability of coal for engineering design. Ph.D. Thesis. University of QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  40. Nicksiar M, Martin CD (2012) Evaluation of methods for determining crack initiation in compression tests on low-porosity rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45:607–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Palmstrom A (1996) Characterizing rock masses by the RMi for use in practical rock engineering: part 1: the development of the Rock Mass index (RMi). Tunn Undergr Space Technol 11:175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ramamurthy T, Arora VK (1994) Strength predictions for jointed rocks in confined and unconfined states. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 31:9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schmertmann JH, Osterberg JO (1960). An experimental study of the development of cohesion and friction with axial strain in saturated cohesive soils. In: Research conference on shear strength of cohesive soils. pp 643–694. ASCEGoogle Scholar
  44. Stacey TR (1981) A simple extension strain criterion for fracture of brittle rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 18:469–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tiwari RP, Rao KS (2006) Post failure behaviour of a rock mass under the influence of triaxial and true triaxial confinement. Eng Geol 84:112–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trivedi A (2015) Computing in situ strength of rock masses based upon RQD and modified joint factor: using pressure and damage sensitive constitutive relationship. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 7:540–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vermeer PA, De Borst R (1984) Non-associated plasticity for soils, concrete and rock. HERON 29:1–64Google Scholar
  48. Walton G, Diederichs MS (2015a) A new model for the dilation of brittle rocks based on laboratory compression test data with separate treatment of dilatancy mobilization and decay. Gotech Geol Eng 33:661–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Walton G, Diederichs MS (2015b) Dilation and post-peak behaviour inputs for practical engineering analysis. Geotech Geol Eng 33(1):15–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Walton G, Diederichs MS, Alejano LR, Arzúa J (2014a) Verification of a laboratory-based dilation model for in situ conditions using continuum models. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 6:522–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Walton G, Arzua J, Alejano LR, Diederichs MS (2014b) A laboratory-testing-based study on the strength, deformability, and dilatancy of carbonate rocks at low confinement. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48:941–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Walton G, Diederichs MS, Arzúa J (2014c) A detailed look at pre-peak dilatancy in a granite—determining “plastic” strains from laboratory test data. Rock engineering and rock mechanics: structures in and on rock masses—proceedings of EUROCK 2014, ISRM European Regional Symposium, pp 211–216Google Scholar
  53. Walton G, Diederichs MS, Punkkinen A, Whitmore J (2016) Back analysis of a pillar monitoring experiment at 2.4 km depth in the Sudbury Basin, Canada. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 85:33–51Google Scholar
  54. Zhao XG, Cai M (2010) A mobilized dilation angle model for rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 47:368–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhao XG, Cai M, Wang J, Li PF, Ma LK (2015) Objective determination of crack initiation stress of brittle rocks under compression using AE measurement. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48:2473–2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Walton
    • 1
  • L. R. Alejano
    • 2
  • J. Arzua
    • 2
  • T. Markley
    • 1
  1. 1.Colorado School of MinesGoldenUSA
  2. 2.Universidad de VigoVigoSpain

Personalised recommendations