Chemical and textural diversity of Kameni (Greece) dacites: role of vesiculation in juvenile and mature basal crystal masses

Abstract

Dacite lavas erupted from Kameni Islands volcanic centre (Greece) during the last 2000 years have a limited range in chemical composition (SiO2 = 64.0–68.5%) which contrasts with their wide range in plagioclase abundance (3–22%) and crystal size distributions. Most plagioclase crystals have simple zoning and occur independently or in loose clusters with finer-grained cores. We propose that magmatic diversity was produced by the interaction between crystals that formed at the base of a magma reservoir and bubbles produced by injection and vesiculation of more mafic magma. Two end-member situations can be identified: in juvenile systems, the basal crystal mass is loosely connected and readily disrupted by bubble formation. The crystal–bubble couples accumulate at the top of the reservoir, from where they can enter the sub-volcanic plumbing system to produce high-crystal content, chemically unevolved magmas. In the mature system, the crystal mass is well connected so bubbles displace the evolved, interstitial magma and liberate only a smaller number of crystals from the crystal mass. This process produces chemically evolved magmas, with lower crystal contents. The oldest lavas seem to have been produced from mature systems, whereas the youngest eruptions were of lavas produced from juvenile systems. This progression may reflect an overall reduction in repose times during the last 2000 years.

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Data will be provided in a data repository.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Steve Carey for supplying the underwater samples. Pantelia Sorotou gave us tremendous help on the islands. We would like to thank the Santorini Union of Boatman for their help with access to the islands, particularly Mr Thanasis who landed us in difficult spots. Comments of anonymous reviewers considerably improved the manuscript.

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MDH-Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada); JVA-Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (Belgium).

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Correspondence to Michael D. Higgins.

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Higgins, M.D., Debecq, A., Vander Auwera, J. et al. Chemical and textural diversity of Kameni (Greece) dacites: role of vesiculation in juvenile and mature basal crystal masses. Contrib Mineral Petrol 176, 13 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-020-01764-3

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Keywords

  • Dacite
  • Enclaves
  • Bubbles
  • Texture
  • CSD
  • Santorini