Marine Biology

, Volume 160, Issue 10, pp 2619–2629 | Cite as

Higher calcification costs at lower temperatures do not break the temperature-size rule in an intertidal gastropod with determinate growth

  • Takahiro IrieEmail author
  • Naoko Morimoto
  • Klaus Fischer
Original Paper


The vast majority of ectothermic organisms grow larger when developing at cooler environmental temperatures, a pattern frequently referred to as the temperature-size rule (TSR). Assuming that this reaction norm has adaptive significance, life history theory predicts that converse patterns may evolve if favored by natural selection, namely if the costs associated with complying to the TSR outweigh the benefits. Calcifying ectotherms may comprise such an exception not following the TSR, because calcification is expected to be more costly at lower temperatures thus increasing associated costs. To test this hypothesis, we reared wild-caught juveniles of the intertidal gastropod Monetaria annulus and compared their shell sizes at the end of the juvenile stage between two rearing temperatures. Contrary to our prediction, M. annulus does follow the TSR, suggesting that increased calcification costs at lower temperatures are not high enough to break the TSR. Such plastic responses should be considered when interpreting geographical patterns such as latitudinal size clines, which may be caused at least partly by phenotypic plasticity.


Juvenile Stage Somatic Growth Adult Body Size Bootstrap Distribution Developmental Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to P. Kraufvelin, W. C. E. P. Verberk, W. Zuo, and three anonymous reviewers for valuable comments, and to S. Nakamura and Y. Nakano for maintaining the equipment necessary for rearing experiments at Sesoko Station. We also thank K. Baba, Y. Iwasa, K. Sakai, S. Tuljapurkar, and K. Yamahira for helpful discussions. This project was funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Atmosphere and Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoKashiwa-shiJapan
  3. 3.Zoological Institute and MuseumUniversity of GreifswaldGreifswaldGermany

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