Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 29, pp 7723–7737 | Cite as

Molecular recognition of IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-15 in biological fluids using phthalocyanine-based stochastic sensors

  • Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van StadenEmail author
  • Ruxandra M. Ilie-Mihai
  • Livia Alexandra Gugoasa
  • Anuta Bilasco
  • Constanta Angelica Visan
  • Adrian Streinu-Cercel
Research Paper


Two stochastic sensors based on the modification of graphite paste with the complexes formed by phthalocyanine (PhCN) with Ni and Cu were designed and used for molecular recognition of IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-15. The four interleukins were recognized according to their signatures—called toff (qualitative parameter) from the diagrams obtained after measurements. The limit of determination for IL-8 was 1 × 10−4μg mL−1 when both stochastic sensors were used; for IL-10, the determination limit was 4.5 × 10−4μg mL−1 for the Ni complex-based sensor, and 4.5 × 10−7μg mL−1 for the Cu complex-based sensor, respectively; for IL-12, the determination limit was 5 × 10−4μg mL−1 for the Ni complex-based sensor, and 5 × 10−7μg mL−1 for the Cu complex-based sensor, respectively; while for IL-15, the determination limit was 5 × 10−5μg/mL for the Ni complex-based sensor, and 5 × 10−5μg/mL for the Cu complex-based sensor, respectively. The stochastic method used was validated using the following biological fluids: nasal lavage, saliva, serum, and whole blood.

Graphical abstract


Interleukin Stochastic sensors Biological fluids 


Compliance with ethical standards

Biological samples were obtained from the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Balș” and the University Hospital in Bucharest (Ethics Committee of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila” approval no. 11/2013) from healthy children with ages between 0 and 18 years (Table 2), children with confirmed influenza with ages between 0 and 18 years (Table 3, samples 1–46), and patients with confirmed gastric cancer—adult patients (Table 3, sample 47). Informed consent was obtained for all patients as following: for children, their parents signed the informed consent, and the adults signed their own informed consent.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ruxandra M. Ilie-Mihai
    • 1
    • 2
  • Livia Alexandra Gugoasa
    • 1
  • Anuta Bilasco
    • 3
  • Constanta Angelica Visan
    • 3
  • Adrian Streinu-Cercel
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of Electrochemistry and PATLABNational Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed MatterBucharest-6Romania
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material SciencePolitehnica University of BucharestBucharestRomania
  3. 3.National Institute of Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Balș”Carol Davila University of Medicine and PharmacyBucharestRomania

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