Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 25, pp 6411–6440 | Cite as

Non-volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate: review of methodological aspects

  • Elaheh Rahimpour
  • Maryam Khoubnasabjafari
  • Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki
  • Abolghasem JouybanEmail author


In contrast to bronchial and nasal lavages, the analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising, simple, non-invasive, repeatable, and diagnostic method for studying the composition of airway lining fluid with the potential to assess lung inflammation, exacerbations, and disease severity, and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment regimens. Recent investigations have revealed the potential applications of EBC analysis in systemic diseases. In this review, we highlight the analytical studies conducted on non-volatile compounds/biomarkers in EBC. In contrast to other related articles, this review is classified on the basis of analytical techniques and includes almost all the applied methods and their methodological limitations for quantification of non-volatile compounds in EBC samples, providing a guideline for further researches. The studies were identified by searching the SCOPUS database with the keywords “biomarkers,” “non-volatile compounds,” “determination method,” and “EBC.”


Exhaled breath condensate Non-volatile compounds Biomarkers Analytical methods 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Ali Shayanfar for his assistance in this study.


Jouyban A, Khoubnasabjafari M, Ansarin K, Jouyban-Gharamaleki V. Breath sampling setup. Iranian Patent, 81363, 2013.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaheh Rahimpour
    • 1
  • Maryam Khoubnasabjafari
    • 2
  • Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki
    • 3
  • Abolghasem Jouyban
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center and Faculty of PharmacyTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Kimia Idea Pardaz Azarbayjan (KIPA) Science Based CompanyTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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