“What-if” scenarios towards virtual assembly-state mounting for non-rigid parts inspection using permissible loads

  • Sasan Sattarpanah Karganroudi
  • Jean-Christophe Cuillière
  • Vincent François
  • Souheil-Antoine Tahan
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Recent developments in the fixtureless inspection of non-rigid parts based on computer-aided inspection (CAI) methods significantly contribute to diminishing the time and cost of geometrical dimensioning and inspection. Generally, CAI methods aim to compare scan meshes, which are acquired using scanners as point clouds from non-rigid manufactured parts in a free-state, with associated nominal computer-aided design (CAD) models. However, non-rigid parts are deformed in a free-state due to their compliance behavior. Industrial inspection approaches apply costly and complex physical inspection fixtures to retrieve the functional shape of non-rigid parts in assembly-state. Therefore, fixtureless inspection methods are developed to eliminate the need for these complex fixtures and to replace them with simple inspection supports. Fixtureless inspection methods intend to virtually (numerically) compensate for flexible deformation of non-rigid parts in a free-state. Inspired by industrial inspection techniques wherein weights (e.g., sandbags) are applied as restraining loads on non-rigid parts, we present a new fixtureless inspection method in this article. Our proposed virtual mounting assembly-state inspection (VMASI) method aims at predicting the functional shape (in assembly-state) of a deviated non-rigid part (including defects such as plastic deformation). This method is capable of virtually mounting the scan mesh of a deviated non-rigid part (acquired in a free-state) into the designed assembly-state. This is fulfilled by applying permissible restraining forces (loads) that are introduced as pressures on surfaces of a deviated part. The functional shape is then predicted via a linear FE-based transformation where the value and position of required restraining pressures are assessed by our developed restraining pressures optimization (RPO) approach. In fact, RPO minimizes the orientation difference and distance between assembly mounting holes on the predicted shape of a non-rigid part with respect to nominal ones on the CAD model. Eventually, the inspection is accomplished by examining the mounting holes offset on the predicted shape of the scan model concerning the nominal CAD model. This ensures that the mounting holes on the predicted shape of a scan model in assembly-state remain in the dedicated tolerance range. This method is evaluated on two non-rigid parts to predict the required restraining pressures limited to the permissible forces during the inspection process and to predict the eventual functional shape of the scan model. We applied numerical validations for each part, for which different types of synthetic (numerically simulated) defects are included into scan meshes, to determine whether the functional shape of a geometrically deviated part can be virtually retrieved under assembly constrains.

Keywords

Fixtureless inspection Non-rigid parts Virtual mounting in assembly-state Computational metrology Optimization FEA 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

In this paper, we use Gmsh™ [25] for visualizing distance distributions.

References

  1. 1.
    Abenhaim GN, Desrochers A, Tahan AS, Bigeon J (2015) A virtual fixture using a FE-based transformation model embedded into a constrained optimization for the dimensional inspection of nonrigid parts. Comput Aided Des 62:248–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abenhaim GN, Desrochers A, Tahan A (Nov 2012) Nonrigid parts’ specification and inspection methods: notions, challenges, and recent advancements. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 63:741–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bi Z, Wang L (2010) Advances in 3D data acquisition and processing for industrial applications. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 26:403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ascione R, Polini W (2010) Measurement of nonrigid freeform surfaces by coordinate measuring machine. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 51:1055–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weckenmann A, Weickmann J (2006) Optical inspection of formed sheet metal parts applying fringe projection systems and virtual fixation. Metrol Meas Syst 13:321–330Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gentilini I, Shimada K (2011) Predicting and evaluating the post-assembly shape of thin-walled components via 3D laser digitization and FEA simulation of the assembly process. Comput Aided Des 43:316–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weckenmann A, Weickmann J, Petrovic N (2007) Shortening of inspection processes by virtual reverse deformation. In: 4th international conference and exhibition on design and production of machines and dies/molds, Cesme, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jaramillo A, Prieto F, Boulanger P (2013) Fixtureless inspection of deformable parts using partial captures. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 14:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abenhaim GN, Tahan AS, Desrochers A, Maranzana R, (2011). A novel approach for the inspection of flexible parts without the use of special fixtures. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 133(1), p.011009.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4003335
  10. 10.
    Aidibe A, Tahan AS, Abenhaim, GN (2012). Distinguishing profile deviations from a part’s deformation using the maximum normed residual test. WSEAS Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, 7(1), 18-28Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Radvar-Esfahlan H, Tahan S-A (2012) Nonrigid geometric metrology using generalized numerical inspection fixtures. Precis Eng 36:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sabri V, Tahan SA, Pham XT, Moreau D, Galibois S (2016) Fixtureless profile inspection of non-rigid parts using the numerical inspection fixture with improved definition of displacement boundary conditions. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82:1343–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sattarpanah Karganroudi S, Cuillière J-C, Francois V, Tahan S-A (2016) Automatic fixtureless inspection of non-rigid parts based on filtering registration points. Int J Adv Manuf Technol:1–26Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Merkley, K. G. (1998). Tolerance analysis of compliant assemblies (Doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mounaud M, Thiebaut F, Bourdet P, Falgarone H, Chevassus N (2011) Assembly sequence influence on geometric deviations propagation of compliant parts. Int J Prod Res 49:1021–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen H, Jin S, Li Z, Lai X (2014) A comprehensive study of three dimensional tolerance analysis methods. Comput Aided Des 53:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ravishankar S, Dutt H, Gurumoorthy B (2010) Automated inspection of aircraft parts using a modified ICP algorithm. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 46:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weckenmann A, Gall P, Hoffmann J (2004). Inspection of holes in sheet metal using optical measuring systems. In Proceedings of VIth International Science Conference Coordinate Measuring Technique (April 21-24, 2004, Bielsko-Biala, Poland), pp. 339-346Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bronstein AM, Bronstein MM, Kimmel R (2006) Generalized multidimensional scaling: a framework for isometry-invariant partial matching. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:1168–1172MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kimmel R, Sethian JA (1998) Computing geodesic paths on manifolds. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95:8431–8435MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spence AD, Chan H-L, Mitchell JP, Capson DW (2005) Automotive sheet metal and grid digitizing solutions. Comput Aided Des Appl 2:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Botsch M, Pauly M (2007). Course 23: Geometric modeling based on polygonal meshes. In International Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques: ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 courses: San Diego, California (Vol. 2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frey PJ, George PL (2008). Mesh generation: application to finite elements. London: ISTEGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cuillière JC, Francois V (2014) Integration of CAD, FEA and topology optimization through a unified topological model. Comput Aided Des Appl 11:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Geuzaine C, Remacle J-F (2009) Gmsh: a three-dimensional finite element mesh generator with built-in pre- and post-processing facilities. Int J Numer Methods Eng 79:1309–1331CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sasan Sattarpanah Karganroudi
    • 1
  • Jean-Christophe Cuillière
    • 1
  • Vincent François
    • 1
  • Souheil-Antoine Tahan
    • 2
  1. 1.Équipe de Recherche en Intégration Cao-CAlcul (ÉRICCA)Université du Québec à Trois-RivièresTrois-RivièresCanada
  2. 2.Laboratoire d’ingénierie des produits, procédés et systèmes (LIPPS)École de Technologie SupérieureMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations