Journal of Cryptology

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1064–1119 | Cite as

Minimizing the Two-Round Even–Mansour Cipher

  • Shan Chen
  • Rodolphe Lampe
  • Jooyoung Lee
  • Yannick Seurin
  • John Steinberger


The r-round (iterated) Even–Mansour cipher (also known as key-alternating cipher) defines a block cipher from r fixed public n-bit permutations \(P_1,\ldots ,P_r\) as follows: Given a sequence of n-bit round keys \(k_0,\ldots ,k_r\), an n-bit plaintext x is encrypted by xoring round key \(k_0\), applying permutation \(P_1\), xoring round key \(k_1\), etc. The (strong) pseudorandomness of this construction in the random permutation model (i.e., when the permutations \(P_1,\ldots ,P_r\) are public random permutation oracles that the adversary can query in a black-box way) was studied in a number of recent papers, culminating with the work of Chen and Steinberger (EUROCRYPT 2014), who proved that the r-round Even–Mansour cipher is indistinguishable from a truly random permutation up to \(\mathcal {O}(2^{\frac{rn}{r+1}})\) queries of any adaptive adversary (which is an optimal security bound since it matches a simple distinguishing attack). All results in this entire line of work share the common restriction that they only hold under the assumption that the round keys \(k_0,\ldots ,k_r\) and the permutations \(P_1,\ldots ,P_r\) are independent. In particular, for two rounds, the current state of knowledge is that the block cipher \(E(x)=k_2\oplus P_2(k_1\oplus P_1(k_0\oplus x))\) is provably secure up to \(\mathcal {O}(2^{2n/3})\) queries of the adversary, when \(k_0\), \(k_1\), and \(k_2\) are three independent n-bit keys, and \(P_1\) and \(P_2\) are two independent random n-bit permutations. In this paper, we ask whether one can obtain a similar bound for the two-round Even–Mansour cipher from just one n-bit key and one n-bit permutation. Our answer is positive: When the three n-bit round keys \(k_0\), \(k_1\), and \(k_2\) are adequately derived from an n-bit master key k, and the same permutation P is used in place of \(P_1\) and \(P_2\), we prove a qualitatively similar \(\widetilde{\mathcal {O}}(2^{2n/3})\) security bound (in the random permutation model). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first “beyond the birthday bound” security result for AES-like ciphers that does not assume independent round keys.


Generalized Even–Mansour cipher Key-alternating cipher Indistinguishability Pseudorandom permutation Random permutation model Sum-capture problem 


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Copyright information

© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shan Chen
    • 1
  • Rodolphe Lampe
    • 2
  • Jooyoung Lee
    • 3
  • Yannick Seurin
    • 4
  • John Steinberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Tsinghua UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.University of VersaillesVersaillesFrance
  3. 3.KAISTDaejeonKorea
  4. 4.ANSSIParisFrance

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