Advertisement

Economic Botany

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 292–301 | Cite as

Archaeological evidence of coca (Erythroxylum coca, erythroxylaceae) in the upper mantaro valley, Peru

  • Christine A. Hastorf
Article

Abstract

Prehistoric remains of coca (Erythroxylum spp.) are rarely uncovered by archaeologists or positively identified by botanists because of their fragile nature and the lack of rigorous archaeological collection techniques. This absence of plant evidence has made evolutionary studies of diffusion and use of coca difficult. From special depositional conditions in the Mantaro area of central Peru, one coca leaf and two endocarps have been uncovered and identified as Erythroxylum coca var. coca. These three specimens came from elite-status contexts dating to the Late Intermediate and the Late Horizon-Early Colonial Periods. These remains provide the first highland evidence for access to coca-producing, ceja de montaña farms, which lie more than 50 km away on the eastern slope of the Andes.

Keywords

Cocaine Peru Ecuador Late Intermediate Coca Leave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature cited

  1. Bohm, B. A., F. R. Ganders, and T. Plowman. 1982. Biosystematics and evolution of cultivated coca (Erythroxylaceae). Syst. Bot. 7:121–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolton, R. 1979. On coca chewing and high-altitude stress. Curr. Anthropol. 20:418–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bray, W., and C. Dollery. 1983. Coca chewing and high-altitude stress: a spurious correlation. Curr. Anthropol. 24:269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burchard, R. E. 1976. Myths of the sacred leaf: ecological perspectives on coca and peasant biocultural adaptation in Peru. Unpubl. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  5. —. 1979a. Coca y trueque de alimentos. In G. Alberti and E. Mayer, ed, Reciprocidad e intercambio en los Andes Peruanos, p. 209–251. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  6. —. 1979b. Coca chewing: a new perspective. In V. Rubin, ed., Cannabis and culture, p. 463–484. Mouton Publishers, The Hague.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, M. N. 1978. Archaeological plant remains from the central coast of Peru. Ñawpa Pacha 16:23–50.Google Scholar
  8. D’ Altroy, T. N. 1981. Empire growth and consolidation: the Xauxa region of Peru under the Incas. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  9. Damp, J. E. 1982. Better homes and gardens: the life and death of the Early Valdivia Community. Unpubl. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Calgary, Calgary, Canada.Google Scholar
  10. Diez de San Miguel, G. 1964 [1567]. Visita hecha a la provincia de Chucuíto por G. Diez de San Miguel en al año 1567. Casa de la Culture, ima, Peru.Google Scholar
  11. Dillehay, T. D. 1979. Pre-Hispanic resource sharing in the central Andes. Science 204:24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Earle, T. K., T. N. D’Altroy, C. A. Hastorf, C. J. Scott, C. L. Costin, G. Russell, and E. Sandefur. n.d. The economic and political consequences of the Inka conquest in the Upper Mantaro Valley region, Peru. Institute of Archaeology, Los Angeles, CA. (in press).Google Scholar
  13. —, and C. J. LeBlanc. 1981. Imperial expansion and economic transformation in the Yanamarca Valley, Peru. Unpubl. ms. on file at Univ. California, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  14. —, C. A. Hastorf, and T. Y. Le Vine. 1980. Changing settlement patterns in the Upper Mantaro valley, Peru. J. New World Archaeol. 4:1–49.Google Scholar
  15. Engel, F. 1963. A preceramic settlement on the central coast of Peru: Asia, unit 1. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 53:1–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Espinoza Soriano, W. 1972. Los Huancas, alidos de la conquista. Anales Ci. Univ. del Centro del Peru, Huancayo 1:9–427.Google Scholar
  17. Flannery, K. V. 1967. The Olmec and the Valley of Oaxaca: a model for inter-regional interaction in Formative times. In E. Benson, ed., Dumbarton Oaks Conference on the Olmec, p. 79–110. Dumbarton Oaks Foundation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  18. Hastorf, C. A. 1983. Prehistoric agricultural intensification and political development in the Jauja region of central Peru. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  19. -. 1985. The effect of Inka economics on northern Wanka agricultural production in the central Peruvian Andes. Paper presented at 50th Annual Meeting, Soc. Amer. Archaeol., Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  20. -, and T. K. Earle. 1985. Intensive agriculture and the geography of political change in the upper Mantaro region of central Peru. In I. Farrington, ed., Prehistoric intensive agriculture in the tropics. Brit. Archaeol. Rep. Int. Ser. 232:569-595.Google Scholar
  21. Hemming, J. 1970. The Conquest of the Incas. Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovich, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Holmstedt, B., E. Jaatmaa, K. Leander, and T. Plowman. 1977. Determination of cocaine in some South American species of Erythroxylum using mass fragmentography. Phytochemistry 16: 1753–1755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. LaLone, D. E. 1978. Historical contexts of trade and markets. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  24. Lathrap, D. W., D. Collier, and H. Chandra. 1975. Ancient Ecuador: culture, clay and creativity 3000–300 B.C. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  25. LeBlanc, C. J. 1981. Late prehispanic Huanca settlement patterns in the Yanamarca Valley, Peru. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  26. LeVine, T. Y. 1979. Prehistoric political and economic change in highland Peru: an ethnohistorical study of the Mantaro Valley. Unpubl. M. A. thesis, Univ. California, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  27. Lindgren, J.-E. 1981. Guide to the analysis of cocaine and its metabolites in biological material. J. Ethnopharmacol. 3:337–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moore, S. F. 1958. Power and property in Inca Peru. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  29. Murra, J. V. 1980 [1956]. The economic organization of the Inca State. JAI Press, Greenwich, CT.Google Scholar
  30. Netherly, P. J. 1976. Inca coca lands on the north coast of Peru. Paper presented at 75th Annual Meeting, Amer. Anthropol. Assoc, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  31. Patterson, T. C. 1971. Central Peru: its population and economy. Archaeology 24:316–321.Google Scholar
  32. Plowman, T. 1979a. Botanical perspectives on coca. J. Psychol. Drugs 11:103–117.Google Scholar
  33. —. 1979b. The identity of Amazonian and Trujillo coca. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 27:45–68.Google Scholar
  34. —. 1981. Amazonian coca. J. Ethnopharmacol. 3:195–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. —. 1984a. The origin, evolution and diffusion of coca Erythroxylum spp., in South and Central America. In D. Stone, ed., Pre-Columbian plant migration. Pap. Peabody Mus. Archaeol. Ethnogr. 76:125–163.Google Scholar
  36. —. 1984b. The ethnobotany of coca (Erythroxylum spp., Erythroxylaceae). Advances Econ. Bot. 1:62–111.Google Scholar
  37. —, and L. Rivier. 1983. Cocaine and cinnamoylcocaine content of Erythroxylum species. Ann. Bot. (London) 51:641–659.Google Scholar
  38. Rathje, W. 1971. The origin and development of classic Maya civilization. Amer. Antiquity 36: 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rivier, L. 1981. Analysis of alkaloids in leaves of cultivated Erythroxylum and characteristics of alkaline substances used during coca chewing. J. Ethnopharmacol. 3:313–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rostworowski de Diez Canseco, M. 1977. Plantaciones prehispánicas de coca en la vertiente del Pacifico. Etnía y sociedad: costa peruana prehispánica, p. 155–195. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.Google Scholar
  41. Rury, P. M. 1981. Systematic anatomy of Erythroxylum P. Browne: practical and evolutionary implications for the cultivated cocas. J. Ethnopharmacol. 3:229–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. —, and T. Plowman. 1983. Morphological studies of archaeological and recent coca leaves (Erythroxylum spp.). Bot. Mus. Leafl. 29:297–341.Google Scholar
  43. Sanders, W. T. 1956. The central Mexican symbiotic region. In G. Willey, ed., Prehistoric settlement patterns in the New World, p. 115-127. Viking Fund Publ. Anthropol. 23.Google Scholar
  44. Toledo, F. de. 1940 [1570]. Información hecha por orden de Don Francisco de Toledo en su visita de las provincias del PerÚ, en la que declaran índios anciaños sobre el derecho de los caciques y sobre el gobierno que tenían aquellos pueblos antes que los Incas los conquistasen. In R. Levillier, ed., Don Francisco de Toledo, supremo organizador del PerÚ, su vida, su obra [1515– 1582], Tomo 2, Sus informaciones sobre los Incas, p. 14-37. Espasa-Calpe S.A., Buenos Aires.Google Scholar
  45. Towle, M. A. 1961. The ethnobotany of pre-Columbian Peru. Wenner-Gren Found., New York.Google Scholar
  46. Turner, C. E., Y. Ma, and M. A. Elsohly. 1981. Gas Chromatographic analysis of cocaine and other alkaloids in coca leaves. J. Ethnopharmacol. 3:293–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vega, A. de. 1965 [1582]. La descripción que se hizo en la provincia de Xauxa por la instructión de Su Majestad que a la dicha provincia se invió de molde. Rel. Geog. de Indias. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, Madrid, 183:166–175.Google Scholar
  48. Webb, M. 1975. The flag follows trade: an essay on the necessary interaction of military and commercial factors in state formation. In J. Sabloff and C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, ed., Ancient civilization and trade, p. 155–209. Univ. New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine A. Hastorf
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anthropology and Center for Ancient StudiesUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolis

Personalised recommendations