, Volume 4, Issue 10, pp 8–15 | Cite as

Great experiments in physics

5. Birth of quantum electronics — Lasers
Series Article


In Part 1 of this article, we described masers. In this part, we describe lasers, their optical counterpart.


Ruby Population Inversion Axial Mode Optical Maser Ruby Crystal 


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Suggested Reading

  1. [1]
    P James Gordon, The Maser,Scientific American, Vol 199, 42–50, 1958.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    L Arthur Schawlow, Optical Masers,Scientific American, Vol 204, 52–61, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Joan Lisa Bromberg, The birth of the laser,Physics Today, 26–33, Oct. 1988.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Nicolaas Bloembergen, Physical Review records the birth of the Laser Era,Physics Today, 28–31, Oct. 1993.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    The Feynman Lectures in Physics, Vol 3, Ch. 9, 1965.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    H Kopfermann and R Ladenburg,Nature Vol 122, 438–439, 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nuclear Science CentreNew DelhiIndia

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