The Evolving Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores for Persons with Diabetes Mellitus
Purpose of Review
We briefly introduce the concept and use of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores and review the methodology for CVD risk score development and validation in patients with diabetes. We also discuss CVD risk scores for diabetic patients that have been developed in different countries.
Patients with diabetes have a gradient of CVD risk that needs to be accurately assessed. Numerous CVD risk scores for diabetic patients have been created in various settings. The methods to develop risk scores are highly diverse and each choice has its own pros and cons. A well-constructed risk score for diabetic patients may be advocated by guidelines and adopted by healthcare providers to help determine preventive strategies. New risk factors are being investigated in order to improve the predictive accuracy of current risk scores.
A suitable CVD risk score for the diabetes population should be accurate, low-cost, and beneficial to outcome. While the performance (accuracy) has all been internally validated, validation on external populations is still needed. Cost-effectiveness and clinical trials demonstrating improvement in outcomes are limited and should be the target of future research.
KeywordsCardiovascular disease Disease risk score Diabetes
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Zhao has no conflicts to report.
Dr. Wong receives research funding from Amgen, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Amarin, and Pfizer; is a consultant for Astra-Zeneca and Akcea; and is on the speaker’s bureau for Sanofi.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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