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Transport in Porous Media

, Volume 128, Issue 1, pp 75–96 | Cite as

Steady-State Relative Permeability Measurements of Tight and Shale Rocks Considering Capillary End Effect

  • Rasoul Nazari MoghaddamEmail author
  • Mahmoud Jamiolahmady
Article
  • 238 Downloads

Abstract

Relative permeability (kr) data are the key factors for describing the behaviour of the multi-phase flow in porous media. During the kr measurements of low-permeability rocks, high capillary pressure can cause a significant liquid hold-up at the core outlet. This liquid hold-up, which is known as capillary end effect (CEE), is the main difficulty for laboratory measurements of relative permeability (kr) for tight and shale rocks. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to correct the CEE during the steady-state relative permeability (SS-kr) measurements. The integrity of the proposed method is evaluated by a set of artificially generated data and the experimental SS-kr data of an Eagle Ford shale sample. It is shown that accurate kr data can be obtained using the proposed technique. This technique can be used to estimate reliable kr data without any saturation profile measurement equipment, such as CT scan or MRI.

Keywords

Relative permeability Shale rock Capillary end effect Unconventional reservoirs Steady state 

List of symbols

A

Area

K

Absolute permeability

q

Flow rate

S

Saturation

F

Liquid/gas flow rate ratio

P

Pressure

L

Length

x

Distance

F

Liquid/gas flow rate ratio

\( S_{\text{o}}^{*} \)

Wetting phase (oil) saturation

\( \overline{S}_{\text{o}} \)

Average wetting phase (oil) saturation

IFT

Interfacial tension

μ

Viscosity

Subscript

g

Gas

o

Oil

c

Capillary pressure

or

Residual oil

gr

Residual gas

ro

Oil relative permeability

rg

Gas relative permeability

out

Outlet

Exp

Experimental

CEE

Capillary end effect

unaf

Unaffected

t

Total

r

Relative

Abbreviations

CEE

Capillary end effect

SS

Steady state

LGR

Liquid/gas flow rate ratio

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was conducted as a part of the Unconventional Gas and Gas-condensate Recovery Project at Heriot-Watt University. This research project is sponsored by Daikin, Dong Energy, Ecopetrol/Equion, ExxonMobil, GDF, INPEX, JX-Nippon, Petrobras, RWE, Saudi-Aramco and TOTAL, whose contribution is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Petroleum Engineering, School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and SocietyHeriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK

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