Environmental Modeling & Assessment

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 613–622

Environmental Modeling and Methods for Estimation of the Global Health Impacts of Air Pollution

Authors

    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Vadim Chirkov
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Frank Dentener
    • European Commission; Joint Research CentreInstitute for Environment and Sustainability
  • Rita Van Dingenen
    • European Commission; Joint Research CentreInstitute for Environment and Sustainability
  • Shonali Pachauri
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Pallav Purohit
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Markus Amann
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Chris Heyes
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Patrick Kinney
    • Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, and The Earth InstituteColumbia University
  • Peter Kolp
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Zbigniew Klimont
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Keywan Riahi
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
  • Wolfgang Schoepp
    • International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10666-012-9317-3

Cite this article as:
Rao, S., Chirkov, V., Dentener, F. et al. Environ Model Assess (2012) 17: 613. doi:10.1007/s10666-012-9317-3

Abstract

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to global health outcomes. A methodological framework for evaluating the global health-related outcomes of outdoor and indoor (household) air pollution is presented and validated for the year 2005. Ambient concentrations of PM2.5 are estimated with a combination of energy and atmospheric models, with detailed representation of urban and rural spatial exposures. Populations dependent on solid fuels are established with household survey data. Health impacts for outdoor and household air pollution are independently calculated using the fractions of disease that can be attributed to ambient air pollution exposure and solid fuel use. Estimated ambient pollution concentrations indicate that more than 80% of the population exceeds the WHO Air Quality Guidelines in 2005. In addition, 3.26 billion people were found to use solid fuel for cooking in three regions of Sub Saharan Africa, South Asia and Pacific Asia in 2005. Outdoor air pollution results in 2.7 million deaths or 23 million disability adjusted life years (DALYs) while household air pollution from solid fuel use and related indoor smoke results in 2.1 million deaths or 41.6 million DALYs. The higher morbidity from household air pollution can be attributed to children below the age of 5 in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia. The burden of disease from air pollution is found to be significant, thus indicating the importance of policy interventions.

Keywords

Air pollution Atmospheric PM2.5 Health impact methodology Solid fuels Household health

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012