Original Paper

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 245-255

First online:

The long-lasting impact of adolescents’ deviant friends on suicidality: a 3-year follow-up perspective

  • Erin WinterrowdAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Email author 
  • , Silvia Sara CanettoAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Colorado State University

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During adolescence, friends are increasingly important for support and values. Do friends also have a long-term impact on suicidality? This study explored the role of friendship problems (e.g., social isolation) and deviant friends during late adolescence on suicidal ideation and behavior 3 years later.


Participants were 295 community adolescents (59 % Mexican-American; 41 % European-American) from the United States. Information about their suicidal ideation and behavior, depression, friendship problems, and deviant friends was collected at baseline and at a 3-year follow-up.


Having deviant friends was a better predictor of suicidality than having friendship problems, with variability by sex and ethnicity. Having deviant friends predicted suicidal ideation among Mexican-American adolescents. Having friends who were disconnected from school was a risk factor for suicidal ideation among European-American adolescents but a protective factor for suicidal behavior among Mexican-American adolescents, especially boys. Depression played more of a mediating role between friendship factors and suicidality for European-American than for Mexican-American adolescents.


This study’s findings suggest an influence of adolescents’ deviant friends on suicidality 3 years later. They also call for the cultural and gender grounding of suicide theory, research and prevention.


Suicidal Adolescent Friendships Ethnicity Longitudinal