The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Game Theory

  • R. J. Aumann
Reference work entry


Game theory concerns the behaviour of decision makers whose decisions affect each other. Its analysis is from a rational rather than a psychological or sociological viewpoint. It is indeed a sort of umbrella theory for the rational side of social science, where ‘social’ is interpreted broadly, to include human as well as non-human players (computers, animals, plants). Its methodologies apply in principle to all interactive situations, especially in economics, political science, evolutionary biology, and computer science. There are also important connections with accounting, statistics, the foundations of mathematics, social psychology, law, business, and branches of philosophy such as epistemology and ethics.


Asymmetric information Aumann, R. J. Axelrod, R. Axiomatics Bargaining Bounded rationality Brouwer’s fixed-point theorem Coalitional games Coalitions Common knowledge assumption Competitive equilibrium Consistency Continuous games Cooperative game theory Cooperative games Cores Correlated equilibria Cost allocation Differential games Distributed computing Duality theorems Dynamic games Ethics Evolutionary economics Expected utility theory Extensive form games Fixed threats Folk theorem Game theory Games of incomplete information General equilibrium Gillies, D. Harsanyi, J. Impossibility theorem Imputations Individual rationality Kakutani’s fixed point theorem Kernel Kuhn, H. Lemke-Howson algorithm Linear inequalities Linear programming Luce, R. Market games Mathematical economics Mathematical programming Milnor, J. Minimax theorem Mixed strategy game Monopoly Monopsony Morgenstern, O. Nash equilibrium Nash program Nash, J. Net worth Non-cooperative games Nucleolus Oligopoly Perfect information Prisoner’s dilemma Probability distributions Raiffa, H. Ramsey, F. Randomization Refinements of Nash equilibrium Repeated games Savage, L. Selten, R. Shadow pricing Shapley value Shapley, L. Shubik, M. Small worlds Maynard Smith, J. Solution concepts Stable set theory Statistical decision theory Stochastic games Strategic equilibrium Strategic games Strictly competitive games Strictly determined games Subgame perfection Subgames Super additivity Testing Tit for tat Transferable utility Tucker, A. Uncertainty Utility functions Value equivalence principle von Neumann, J. Voting games Weighted voting game Zermelo’s theorem Zero-sum games 

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© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Aumann
    • 1
  1. 1.