The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Innovation

  • C. Freeman
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_740

Abstract

Economists of all descriptions have accepted that new products and new processes are the main source of dynamism in capitalist development. But relatively few have stopped to examine in depth the origins of such innovations or the consequences of their adoption. Most have preferred, in Rosenberg’s (1982) apt description, not to look ‘inside the black box’, but to leave that task to technologists and historians, preferring to concentrate their own efforts on ‘ceteris paribus’ models, which relegate technical and institutional change to the role of exogenous variables.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Burns, T., and G.M. Stalker. 1961. The management of innovation. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  2. Dosi, G. 1984. Technical change and industrial transformation: The theory and an application to the semi-conductor industry. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dosi, G. 1985. The micro-economic sources and effects of innovation; an assessment of some recent findings. Paper given to conference on ‘distribution, growth and technical progress’, Rome; (mimeo) DAEST, University of Venice.Google Scholar
  4. Freeman, C. 1982. The economics of industrial innovation, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA/London: MIT Press/Frances Pinter.Google Scholar
  5. Freeman, C. 1983. Design and British economic performance. London: Royal College of Art.Google Scholar
  6. Galbraith, J.K. 1972. The new industrial state, 2nd ed. London: André Deutsch.Google Scholar
  7. Hufbauer, G. 1966. Synthetic materials and the theory of international trade. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  8. Jewkes, J., D. Sawers, and R. Stillerman. 1958. The sources of invention. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  9. Mansfield, E. 1968. Industrial research and technological innovation: An econometric analysis. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  10. Mansfield, E., et al. 1972. Research and innovation in the modern corporation. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Marx, K., and F. Engels. 1848. The Communist manifesto. London.Google Scholar
  12. Metcalfe, J.S. 1981. Impulse and diffusion in the study of technical change. Futures 13(5): 347–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nelson, R.R., and S.G. Winter. 1977. In search of a useful theory of innovation. Research Policy 6(1): 36–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nelson, R.R., and S.G. Winter. 1982. An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap and Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Pavitt, K.L.R. 1980. Technical innovation and British economic performance. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rogers, E.M. 1962. The diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  17. Rosenberg, N. 1976. Perspectives on technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rosenberg, N. 1982. Inside the black box. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Rothwell, R.R., and W. Zegveld. 1981. Industrial innovation and public policy. London: Frances Pinter.Google Scholar
  20. Schumpeter, J.A. 1912. The theory of economic development. Trans. Leipzig. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1934.Google Scholar
  21. Schumpeter, J.A. 1928. The instability of capitalism. Economic Journal 38: 366–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schumpeter, J.A. 1942. Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  23. Smith, A. 1776. An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. London: Dent, 1910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Soete, L.L.G. 1979. Firm size and inventive activity: The evidence reconsidered. European Economic Review 12: 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Soete, L.L.G. 1981. A general test of technological gap trade theory. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 117(4): 638–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Szakasits, G. 1974. The adoption of the SAPPHO method in the Hungarian electronics industry. Research Policy 3(1): 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Townsend, J., et al. 1982. Innovations in Britain since 1945. Social Policy Research Unit, Occasional paper no. 16, University of Sussex.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Freeman
    • 1
  1. 1.