The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Demographic Transition

  • Ronald D. Lee
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_320

Abstract

The ‘demographic transition’ refers to the fall of fertility and mortality from initially high to subsequent low levels and accompanying changes in the population. It began around 1800 with declining mortality in Europe, and is expected to be complete worldwide by 2100. In that time the global population will have risen tenfold, the ratio of elders to children will have risen by a factor of ten, longevity will have tripled, and fertility fallen from six births per woman to two. Individual and population ageing will pose many challenges, from life-cycle planning to the rising costs of health care and retirement.

Keywords

Ageing populations Capital–labour ratio Demographic transition Dependency ratio Fertility in developed countries Fertility in developing countries Health care International capital flows International migration Life expectantcy Malthus, T. Mortality Nutrition and development 

JEL Classifications

J11 
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Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald D. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.