The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Labour Mobility in the European Union

  • Jonathan Portes
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_3022

Abstract

This article describes trends in labour mobility within the European Union since the Treaty of Rome and the resulting economic impacts, particularly since the accession of ten new Member States in 2004. It concludes that, half a century after ‘free movement’ was first incorporated into the founding treaties of the European Union, it is finally beginning to become an important factor in European economic integration.

Keywords

European Union Labour mobility Migration 

JEL Classifications

F15 F16 F22 J61 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Beyer, R.C.M., and F. Smets. 2014. Labour market adjustments and migration in Europe and the United States: How different? Paper presented at the 60th panel meeting of economic policy. http://www.economic-policy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Beyer-Smets.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  2. Constant, A.F. 2012. Sizing it up: Labor migration lessons of the EU enlargement to 27. In European migration and asylum policies: Coherence or contradiction, ed. C. Gortázar, C. Parra, B. Segaert, and C. Timmerman. Belgium: Bruylant.Google Scholar
  3. Constant, A.F. 2014. Do migrants take the jobs of native workers? IZA World of Labor. doi:10.15185/izawol.10.Google Scholar
  4. Decressin, J., and A. Fatás. 1995. Regional labour market dynamics in Europe. European Economic Review 39(9): 1627–1655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Del Boca, D., and A. Venturini. 2014. Migration in Italy is backing the old age welfare. Discussion paper, 8328. Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn.Google Scholar
  6. Devlin, C., O. Bolt, D. Patel, D. Harding, and I. Hussain. 2014. Impacts of migration on UK native employment: An analytical review of the evidence. London: Department for Business Innovation & Skills . https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/287287/occ109.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  7. Doyle, N., G. Hughes, and E. Wadensjö. 2006. Freedom of movement for workers from Central and Eastern Europe. Experiences in Ireland and Sweden. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies . http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/5th_enlargement/facts_figures/20065_en.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  8. Duffy, B., and T. Frere-Smith. 2013. Perceptions and reality. Public attitudes to immigration. https://www.ipsos-mori.com/Assets/Docs/Publications/sri-perceptions-and-reality-immigration-report-2013.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  9. Dustmann, C., and T. Frattini. 2014. The fiscal effects of immigration to the UK. Economic Journal 124(580): F593–F643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dustmann, C., and A. Glitz. 2014. How do industries and firms respond to changes in local labor supply? London: Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration . http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~uctpb21/Cpapers/CDP_18_11.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  11. Dustmann, C., T. Frattini, and A. Rosso. 2012. The effect of emigration from Poland on Polish wages. London: Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration . http://www.cream-migration.org/publ_uploads/CDP_29_12.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  12. European Citizen Action Service. 2014. Fiscal impact of EU migrants in Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK. Brussels: European Citizen Action Service. http://www.epim.info/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/2BC_EU-migrants-final-2.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  13. European Commission. 1957. EU treaties. http://europa.eu/eu-law/decision-making/treaties/index_en.htm. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  14. European Commission. 1985. Completing the internal market. White Paper from the Commission to the European Council. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. http://europa.eu/documents/comm/white_papers/pdf/com1985_0310_f_en.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  15. European Commission. 2004. Free movement of citizens directive 2004/38/EC. Brussels: European Commission. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32004L0038&from=EN. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  16. European Commission. 2013a. Impact of mobile EU citizens on national social security systems. http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId=89&newsId=1980&furtherNews=yes. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  17. European Commission. 2013b. A fact finding analysis on the impact on the member statessocial security systems of the entitlements of non-active intra-EU migrants to special non-contributory cash benefits and healthcare granted on the basis of residence. http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10972&langId=en. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  18. European Commission. 2014a. Labour mobility and labour market adjustment in the EU. European Union Economic Paper 539. Brussels: European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/economic_paper/2014/pdf/ecp539_en.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  19. European Commission. 2014b. Employment and social developments in Europe 2013. http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=7684. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  20. European Court of Justice. 2014. Economically inactive EU citizens who go to another member state solely in order to obtain social assistance may be excluded from certain social benefits. Press release, 11 November. http://curia.europa.eu/jcms/upload/docs/application/pdf/2014-11/cp140146en.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  21. Farré, L., L. González, and F. Ortega. 2011. Immigration, family responsibilities and the labor supply of skilled native women. B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy 11(1): 1–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Galgóczi, B., J. Leschke, and A. Watt. 2009. EU labour migration since enlargement. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  23. George, A., P. Meadows, H. Metcalf, and H. Rolfe. 2011. Impact of migration on the consumption of education and children’s services and the consumption of health services, social care and social services. London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research . http://niesr.ac.uk/sites/default/files/publications/impact-of-migration.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  24. Gilpin, N., M. Henty, S. Lemos, J. Portes, and C. Bullen. 2006. The impact of free movement of workers from central and eastern Europe on the UK labour market. Department of Work and Pensions, Working paper no. 29, Department of Work and Pensions.Google Scholar
  25. Giuletti, C. 2014. The welfare magnet hypothesis and the welfare take-up of migrants. IZA world of labor. doi:10.15185/izawol.37.Google Scholar
  26. Goodhart, D. 2013. National citizen preference in an era of EU free movement. Submission to the Government’s ‘Review of the Balance of Competencies’. http://www.demos.co.uk/files/DavidGoodhartSubmissionJuly2013.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  27. Holland, D., T. Fic, A. Rincon-Aznar, L. Stokes, and P. Paluchowski. 2011. Labour mobility within the EU – The impact of enlargement and the functioning of the transitional arrangements. London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research.Google Scholar
  28. Kahanec, M. 2012. Labor mobility in an enlarged European Union. Discussion paper 6485. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. http://ftp.iza.org/dp6485.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  29. Kahanec, M., M. Pytliková, and K.F. Zimmermann. 2014. The free movement of workers in an enlarged European Union: Institutional underpinnings of economic adjustment. Discussion paper 8456. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor. http://ftp.iza.org/dp8456.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  30. Koikkalainen, S. 2011. Free movement in Europe: Past and present. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/free-movement-europe-past-and-present. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  31. Lisenkova, K., and M. Sanchez-Martinez. 2013. The long-term economic impacts of reducing migration: The case of the UK migration policy. Discussion paper no. 420. London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research. http://niesr.ac.uk/sites/default/files/publications/dp420.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  32. Lithuania Tribune. 2013. Opinion: Emigration and demographic decline in the Baltics. 10 July. http://www.lithuaniatribune.com/44317/opinion-emigration-and-demographic-decline-in-the-baltics-201344317/. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  33. Migration Advisory Committee. 2014. Migrants in low-skilled work: The growth of EU and non-EU labour in low-skilled jobs and its impact on the UK. London: Migration Advisory Committee . https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/migrants-in-low-skilled-work. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  34. Mitchell, J., N. Pain, and R. Riley. 2011. The drivers of international migration to the UK: A panel-based Bayesian model averaging approach. Economic Journal 121(557): 1398–1444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mundell, R.A. 1961. A theory of optimum currency areas. American Economic Review 51(4): 657–665.Google Scholar
  36. Office for National Statistics (ONS). 2014a. Migration statistics quarterly report, November 2014. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_386531.pdf. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  37. Office for National Statistics (ONS). 2014b. Country of birth of foreign born mothers. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/livebirths/bulletins/parentscountryofbirthenglandandwales/2014-08-28. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  38. Ozden, Ç. 2015. A long commute. Finance & Development 52(1). http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2015/03/ozden.htm. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.
  39. Portes, J. 2013. Benefit tourism: The commission gives us some facts. London: National Institute of Economic and Social Research.Google Scholar
  40. Preston, I. 2014. The effect of immigration on public finances. London: Centre for European Policy Research . http://www.voxeu.org/article/immigration-and-public-finances. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.Google Scholar
  41. Ruist, J. 2014. The fiscal consequences of unrestricted immigration from Romania and Bulgaria. Working papers in economics, no. 584. Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.Google Scholar
  42. Venables, A.J. 1999. Trade liberalization and factor mobility. In Migration: The controversies and the evidence, ed. R. Faini, J. De Melo, and K.F. Zimmerman, 23–48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zaiceva, A. 2014. Post-enlargement emigration and new EU members’ labor markets. IZA World of Labor. doi:10.15185/izawol.40.Google Scholar
  44. Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung. 2014. The fiscal effects of foreigners and immigration in Germany. http://www.zew.de/en/news/2817/the-fiscal-effects-of-foreigners-and-immigration-in-germany. Accessed 30 Mar 2015.

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Portes
    • 1
  1. 1.