The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Soviet and Russian Research, Development and Innovation

  • Julian Cooper
Reference work entry


For its level of economic development, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) possessed a research and development (R&D) system that was impressive in terms of personnel and funding, yet the country’s achievements in technological innovation were, with the partial exception of military industry, unimpressive. Following the collapse of Communism, the R&D system substantially contracted in scale. After a decade of post-Communist transformation in Russia, funding began to recover but the new market conditions did not prove conducive to successful innovation on a significant scale. The National Innovation System of present-day Russia is still marked profoundly by the Soviet legacy.


Diffusion of technology Human capital Innovation Intellectual property rights National innovation system Research and development Soviet and Russian science policy Soft budget constraint Venture capital 

JEL Classifications

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© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julian Cooper
    • 1
  1. 1.