Philippovich von Philippsberg, Eugen (1858–1917)
A Viennese by birth, Philippovich began his academic career as a Lecturer (Privatdozent) in Vienna (1884), after studies in economics in Graz, Vienna and Berlin. He obtained a chair in Freiburg (Breisgau) and returned to Vienna (1893), where he worked until his death. Deeply interested in the economic problems of his time and passionately engaged in social reforms, he took an active part in Austrian and German political life. As a member of the upper house of parliament and the leading spirit of the ‘Austrian Fabians’, Philippovich had a significant influence on social legislation in Austria. Like the German academic socialists (Kathedersozialisten) Schmoller and Wagner, members of the Verein für Socialpolitik (of a New Deal type) with whom he cooperated closely, he was a regulationist of the market process, who attributed to the state a moral and economic competence which seems to be wishful thinking rather than based on reason and experience. He strongly believed that a ‘middle course’ between socialism and a competitive economy would help to ease economic and social tensions which were largely caused by overpopulation along with the overcrowded labour market during Germany’s transition from an agrarian into an industrial nation. On the other hand he realized better than most of the German reformers that a sound analytical foundation was necessary for any policy of reasonable reforms.