The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Sports

  • James Quirk
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95189-5_1564

Abstract

Professional team sports leagues and amateur sports associations typically operate as cartels in input and output markets. While details differ from sport to sport, most professional leagues follow the pattern of baseball, whose institutional structure was first described in the seminal paper by Rottenberg (1956). There have also been studies of the National Football League (Neale 1964), the Professional Golfers Association (Cottle 1981), cricket (Schofield 1982), English soccer (Bird 1982; Sloane 1971; Wiseman 1977), the National Hockey League (Jones 1969), Scottish soccer (Vamplew 1982) and Australian football (Dabschek 1975). The literature on amateur sports is less extensive, but includes some interesting work on US college athletics (Koch 1973). Basic sources of background information include several Congressional studies (US Congress 1952a, 1952b, 1957, 1972) and a Brookings volume (Noll 1974a).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Bird, P. 1982. The demand for league football. Applied Economics 14: 637–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Canes, M. 1974. The social benefits of restrictions on team quality. In Government and the sports business, ed. R. Noll. Washington, DC: Brookings.Google Scholar
  3. Cassing, J., and R. Douglas. 1980. Implications of the auction mechanism in baseball’s free agent draft. Southern Economic Journal 48(1): 110–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cottle, P. 1981. Economics of the PGA tour. Social Science Quarterly 62(4): 721–734.Google Scholar
  5. Dabschek, B. 1975. The wage determination process for sportsmen. Economic Record 51: 52–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davenport, D. 1969. Collusive competition in major league baseball: its theory and institutional development. American Economist 13(2): 6–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davis, L. 1974. Self regulation in baseball, 1909–71. In Noll, (1974a).Google Scholar
  8. De Brock, L., and A. Roth. 1981. Strike two: Labor–management negotiations in major league baseball. Bell Journal of Economics 12(2): 413–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. El Hodiri, M., and J. Quirk. 1974. The economic theory of a professional sports league. In Noll (1974a).Google Scholar
  10. El Hodiri, M., and J. Quirk. 1971. An economic model of a professional sports league. Journal of Political Economy 79: 1302–1319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fort, R. and R. Noll. 1984. Pay and performance in baseball: modeling regulars, reserves and expansion. SS Working Paper, Caltech.Google Scholar
  12. Gwartney, J., and C. Haworth. 1974. Employer costs and discrimination: The case of baseball. Journal of Political Economy 82(4): 873–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hill, J., and W. Spellman. 1983. Professional baseball: The reserve clause and salary structure. Industrial Relations 22(1): 1–19.Google Scholar
  14. Horowitz, I. 1974. Sports broadcasting. In Noll (1974a).Google Scholar
  15. Jones, J. 1969. The economics of the National Hockey League. Canadian Journal of Economics 2(February): 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koch, J. 1973. A troubled cartel: The NCAA. Law and Contemporary Problems 38(1): 135–150.Google Scholar
  17. Lehn, K. 1982. Property rights, risk sharing, and player disability in major league baseball. Journal of Law and Economics 45: 343–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Medoff, M. 1976. On monopsonistic exploitation in professional baseball. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Business 16(2): 113–121.Google Scholar
  19. Neale, W. 1964. The peculiar economics of professional sports. Quarterly Journal of Economics 78(1): 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Noll, R. (ed.) 1974a. Government and the sports business. Washington, DC: Brookings.Google Scholar
  21. Noll, R. 1974b. Attendance and price setting. In Noll (1974a).Google Scholar
  22. Pascal, A., and L. Rapping. 1972. The economics of racial discrimination in organized baseball. In Racial discrimination in economic life, ed. A. Pascal. Lexington, MA/Heath: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  23. Porter, P., and G. Scully. 1982. Measuring managerial efficiency: The case of baseball. Southern Economic Journal 48(3): 642–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rottenberg, S. 1956. The baseball players’ labor market. Journal of Political Economy 64: 242–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schofield, J. 1982. The development of first class cricket in England: An economic analysis. Journal of Industrial Economics 30(4): 337–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Scully, G. 1974a. Discrimination: the case of baseball. In Noll (1974a).Google Scholar
  27. Scully, G. 1974b. Pay and performance in major league baseball. American Economic Review 64(6): 915–930.Google Scholar
  28. Sloane, P. 1971. The economics of professional football: Football club as utility maximizer. Scottish Journal of Political Economy 18: 121–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. US Congress. 1952a. House Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on study of monopoly power. Study of monopoly power, Pt 6, Organized baseball. Hearings. In 82nd Conrgess. 1st session. Washington, DC: Government Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
  30. US Congress. 1952b. Organized baseball. Report of the Subcommittee on study of mMonopoly power. House report 2002. In: 82nd Congress 2nd session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  31. US Congress. 1957. Antitrust Subcommittee. Organized Professional Team Sports. Hearings. In: 85th Congress 1st session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  32. US Congress. 1972. Professional basketball. Hearing. In: 92nd Congress 1st session. (Pt 1) and 2 sess. (Pt 2). Washington, DC: Government Printing OfficeGoogle Scholar
  33. Vamplew, W. 1982. The economics of a sports industry: Scottish gate money football, 1890–1914. Economic History Review 48(3): 549–567.Google Scholar
  34. Vining, R., Jr. and J. F. Kerrigan. 1978. An application of the Lexis Ratio to the detection of racial quotas in professional sports: a note. American Economist 22(2), Fall, 71–75.Google Scholar
  35. Wiseman, N.C. 1977. The economics of football. Lloyds Bank Review 123(January): 29–43.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Quirk
    • 1
  1. 1.