The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

2018 Edition
| Editors: Macmillan Publishers Ltd

Pecuniary and Non-pecuniary Economies

  • J. de V. Graaff
Reference work entry


The term pecuniary economies is probably due to Viner (1931), who distinguished them from technological ones. It is the latter that are often referred to as non-pecuniary economies. It is helpful to start by distinguishing internal economies from those that are external to the firm, and to deal with them separately.

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  1. Marshall, A. 1920. Principles of economics, 8th ed. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. Scitovsky, T. 1954. Two concepts of external economies. Journal of Political Economy 62: 70–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Viner, J. 1931. Cost curves and supply curves. Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie 3: 23–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. de V. Graaff
    • 1
  1. 1.