Discrimination may be said to occur in a market where individuals face terms of trade that are determined by personal characteristics which do not appear directly relevant to the transaction. Most concern has centred on differential treatment by race or ethnic group, and by sex. The primary focus has been on the labour market and housing market, with research motivated, in large part, by controversy over the role of government in maintaining or eliminating observed differentials.
- Alchian, A., and R. Kessel. 1962. Competition, monopoly, and the pursuit of pecuniary gain. In Aspects of labor economics, NBER Special Conference Series. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Arrow, K. 1972. Models of job discrimination. In Racial discrimination in economic life, ed. A. Pascal. Lexington: D.C. Heath.Google Scholar
- Becker, G. 1957. The economics of discrimination, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.Google Scholar
- Sowell, T. 1981. Ethnic America: A history. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar