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Key Global Organizations

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Part of the The Statesman's Yearbook book series (SYBK)

United Nations (UN)

Origin and Aims

The United Nations is an association of states, or intergovernmental organizations, pledged to maintain international peace and security and to co-operate in solving international political, economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. The name ‘United Nations’ was devised by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 Jan. 1942, during the Second World War, when 26 nations pledged to continue fighting the Axis Powers.

The United Nations Charter was drawn up by the representatives of 50 countries at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, which met in San Francisco from 25 April to 26 June 1945. Delegates started with proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks (Washington, D.C.) from 21 Aug. to 28 Sept. 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed later and became one of the original 51 member states. The United Nations came into existence officially on 24 Oct. 1945, with the deposit of the requisite number of ratifications of the Charter with the US Department of State. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 Oct.

In recent years, most of the UN’s work has been devoted to helping developing countries. Major goals include the protection of human rights; saving children from starvation and disease; providing relief assistance to refugees and disaster victims; countering global crime, drugs and disease; and assisting countries devastated by war and the long-term threat of landmines.

Members

New member states are admitted by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. The Charter provides for the suspension or expulsion of a member for violation of its principles, but no such action has ever been taken. The UN has 193 member states, comprising every internationally recognized sovereign state, with the exception of the Holy See. (For a list of these, see below.)

Finance

Contributions from member states constitute the main source of funds. These are in accordance with a scale specified by the Assembly, and determined primarily by the country’s share of the world economy and ability to pay, in the range 0·001%–22·000%. The Organization is prohibited by law from borrowing from commercial institutions.

A Working Group on the Financial Situation of the United Nations was established in 1994 to address the long-standing financial crisis caused by non-payment of assessed dues by many member states. Unpaid assessed contributions stood at US$1·6bn. as of 30 April 2018.
  • Official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

Structure

The UN has five principal organs established by the founding Charter (formerly six). All have their headquarters in New York except the International Court of Justice, which has its seat in The Hague. These core bodies work through dozens of related agencies, operational programmes and funds, and through special agreements with separate, autonomous, intergovernmental agencies, known as Specialized Agencies, to provide a programme of action in the fields of peace and security, justice and human rights, humanitarian assistance, and social and economic development. The five principal UN organs are:

1. The General Assembly

The General Assembly, composed of all members, with each member having one vote. Meeting once a year, proceedings begin on the Tuesday of the third week of Sept. The 73rd Session opened on 18 Sept. 2018.

At least three months before the start of each session, the Assembly elects a new President, 21 Vice-Presidents and the chairs of its six main committees, listed below. To ensure equitable geographical representation, the presidency of the Assembly rotates each year among the five geographical groups of states: Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Western Europe and other States. Special sessions may be convoked by the Secretary-General if requested by the Security Council, by a majority of members, or by one member if the majority of the members concur. Emergency sessions may be called within 24 hours at the request of the Security Council on the vote of any nine Council members, or a majority of United Nations members, or one member if the majority of members concur. Decisions on important questions, such as peace and security, new membership and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority; other questions require a simple majority of members present and voting.

The work of the General Assembly is divided between six Main Committees, on which every member state is represented: the Disarmament and International Security Committee (First Committee); the Economic and Financial Committee (Second Committee); the Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee (Third Committee); the Special Political and Decolonization Committee (Fourth Committee); the Administrative and Budgetary Committee (Fifth Committee); and the Legal Committee (Sixth Committee).

There is also a General Committee charged with the task of co-ordinating the proceedings of the Assembly and its Committees, and a Credentials Committee, which examines the credentials of representatives of Member States. The General Committee consists of 28 members: the President and 21 Vice-Presidents of the General Assembly and the chairs of the six main committees. The Credentials Committee consists of nine members appointed by the Assembly on the proposal of the President at each session. In addition, the Assembly has a number of subsidiary organs, divided into Boards (of which there were 7 in Jan. 2019), Commissions (7), Committees (31), Assemblies and Councils (4) and Working Groups, etc. (16).

The General Assembly has the right to discuss any matters within the scope of the Charter and, with the exception of any situation or dispute on the agenda of the Security Council, may make recommendations accordingly. Occupying a central position in the UN, the Assembly receives reports from other organs, admits new members, directs activities for development, sets policies and determines programmes for the Secretariat and approves the UN budget. The Assembly appoints the Secretary-General, who reports annually to it on the work of the Organization.

Under the ‘Uniting For Peace’ resolution (377) adopted by the General Assembly in Nov. 1950, the Assembly is also empowered to take action if the Security Council, because of a lack of unanimity of its permanent members, fails to exercise its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security in any case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression. In this event, the General Assembly may consider the matter immediately with a view to making appropriate recommendations to members for collective measures, including, in the case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression, the use of armed force to maintain or restore international peace and security.

The first Emergency Special Session of the Assembly was called in 1956 during the Suez Crisis by Yugoslavia, which cited Resolution 377; demands were made for the withdrawal of British, French and Israeli troops from Egypt. On the Assembly’s recommendations, the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF I) was formed as the UN’s first armed peacekeeping force.

Over the years a number of programmes and funds have been established to address particular humanitarian and development concerns. These bodies usually report to the General Assembly. They include: the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF); Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Population Fund (UNFPA); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); United Nations World Food Programme (WFP); United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
  • Website: http://www.un.org/ga

  • President: María Fernanda Espinosa Garcés (Ecuador) was elected President for the 73rd Session in 2018.

2. The Security Council

The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. Under the Charter, the Security Council alone has the power to take decisions that member states are obligated to carry out. A representative of each of its members must be present at all times at UN Headquarters, but it may meet elsewhere as best facilitates its work.

The Presidency of the Council rotates monthly, according to the English alphabetical order of members’ names. The Council consists of 15 members: five permanent and ten non-permanent elected for a two-year term by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. Each member has one vote. Retiring members are not eligible for immediate re-election. Any other member of the United Nations may participate without a vote in the discussion of questions specially affecting its interests.

Decisions on procedural questions are made by an affirmative vote of at least nine members. On all other matters, the affirmative vote of nine members must include the concurring votes of all permanent members (subject to the provision that when the Council is considering methods for the peaceful settlement of a dispute, parties to the dispute abstain from voting). Consequently, a negative vote from a permanent member has the power of veto. If a permanent member does not support a decision but does not wish to veto it, it may abstain. From 1945–91 the USSR employed its veto 119 times, the USA 69 times, the UK 32 times, France 18 times and China three times (including once before the People’s Republic of China took over Taiwan’s seat at the UN in 1971). From 1992–Jan. 2019 the Russian Federation vetoed 22 resolutions, the USA 16 and China ten; France and the UK did not veto any resolutions.

According to Article 29 of the United Nations Charter, the Security Council can establish subsidiary bodies as needed for the performance of its functions. All existing committees and working groups consist of the 15 members of the Council. The mandate of subsidiary organs, whether they are committees or working groups, can cover procedural matters or substantive issues.

Committees include a Counter-Terrorism Committee established in the wake of the Sept. 2001 attacks in the USA, a Non-Proliferation Committee and a Military Staff Committee. There are also sanctions committees, standing committees and ad hoc bodies. In addition the Security Council has responsibility for peacekeeping operations and political missions, as well as international courts and tribunals. The Peacebuilding Commission, acting as an advisory body, supports peace efforts in countries emerging from conflict.

The Council also makes recommendations to the Assembly on the appointment of the Secretary-General and, with the Assembly, elects the judges of the International Court of Justice.

Peacekeeping

The Charter contains no explicit provisions for peacekeeping operations (PKOs), yet they have the highest profile of all the UN’s operations. PKOs are associated with humanitarian intervention though their emergence was primarily a result of the failure of the Charter’s collective security system during the Cold War and the absence of a UN Force. The end of the Cold War and the rise of intra-state conflict led to a proliferation of PKOs from the late 1980s and a greater proportion of armed missions. However, notable failures in the early and mid-1990s, such as the missions to Somalia in 1993 and to Rwanda in 1994, account for a drop in PKOs and shorter mandates. In 1992 then Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali presented the ‘Agenda for Peace’, which laid out four phases to prevent or end conflict: preventative diplomacy; peacemaking with civilian and military means; peacekeeping, in its traditional sense of operations in the field; and post-conflict peace-building, an area seen as comparatively neglected in previous missions. The then Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report aimed at conflict prevention in July 2001 emphasizing inter-agency co-operation and long-term strategies to prevent regional instability. There have been 72 peacekeeping operations in total since 1948. The first mission—consisting of unarmed observers—was to monitor the ceasefire during the First Arab–Israeli War.

Recent History

In Nov. 2002 the Security Council held Iraq in ‘material breach’ of disarmament obligations. Weapons inspectors, led by Hans Blix (Sweden), returned to Iraq four years after their last inspections. Amid suspicion that Iraq was failing to comply, the USA, the UK and Spain reserved the right to disarm Iraq without a further Security Council resolution. Other Council members, notably China, France, Germany and Russia, opposed such action. In April 2003 US forces, supported by the UK, brought an end to Saddam Hussein’s rule. In June 2004 the UN recognized the transfer of sovereignty to the interim government of Iraq. In 2005 the Council referred cases to the International Criminal Court (ICC) for the first time, asking the court to investigate the situation in Darfur, Sudan. Instability in Sudan saw the establishment of peacekeeping missions in Darfur (2007), the disputed Abyei region and newly independent South Sudan (both 2011). Other peacekeeping missions established in recent years have included Liberia (2003), Côte d’Ivoire (2004), Haiti (2004), Timor-Leste (2006), Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010), Libya (2011), Mali (2013), the Central African Republic (2014) and, again, Haiti (2017). In April 2012 the Security Council established a mission in Syria to monitor the cessation of armed violence and to oversee a UN–League of Arab States six-point peace plan. However, with continuing violence obstructing implementation of the mandate, the mission was ended in Aug. 2012. While UN sanctions have been tightened against North Korea in response to weapons tests carried out by Pyongyang, those against Iran were lifted in Jan. 2016 following implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action limiting Iran’s nuclear development activities. In 2015 the UN launched the Sustainable Development Goals agenda, comprising 17 specific targets to be achieved over 15 years, designed as a successor programme to the Millennium Development Goals. In Jan. 2017 António Guterres took office as the UN’s Secretary-General. In Nov. that year the UN imposed its strongest sanctions to date on North Korea in response to Pyongyang’s continued nuclear testing programme. A month later the UN General Assembly supported a non-binding resolution effectively rejecting the USA’s recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. In Aug. 2018 the UN issued a report on military atrocities against Myanmar’s Muslim Rohingya minority in 2017 that called for the investigation and prosecution of the country’s senior generals for genocide.

Reform

The composition of the Security Council, with its five permanent members having qualified as the principal Second World War victors, has been subject to intense debate in recent years. The lack of permanent representation from Latin America and the Caribbean or from Africa and the Islamic World is frequently cited to demonstrate that the Council is unrepresentative. However, reform is in the hands of the permanent members and a unanimous agreement has proved elusive. In Sept. 2004 Brazil, Germany, India and Japan (the G4) launched a joint bid for permanent membership, along with a seat for an African state. In March 2005 then Secretary-General Annan proposed either six new permanent members and three new non-permanent members or the election of a new type of member, eight of which would be elected for a four-year period. The World Summit in Sept. 2005 failed to agree on Security Council reform but pledged to continue negotiations.

Permanent Members

China, France, Russian Federation, UK, USA (Russian Federation took over the seat of the former USSR in Dec. 1991).

Non-Permanent Members

Côte d’Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Kuwait, Peru and Poland (until 31 Dec. 2019); Belgium, Dominican Republic, Germany, Indonesia and South Africa (until 31 Dec. 2020).

Finance

The budget for UN peacekeeping operations in 2018–19 is US$6·7bn.

3. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is responsible under the General Assembly for co-ordinating international economic, social, cultural, educational, health and related matters.

The Council consists of 54 member states elected by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly for a three-year term. Members are elected according to the following geographic distribution: Africa, 14 members; Asia, 11; Eastern Europe, 6; Latin America and Caribbean, 10; Western Europe and other States, 13. A third of the members retire each year. Retiring members are eligible for immediate re-election. Each member has one vote. Decisions are made by a majority of the members present and voting.

The Council holds one five-week substantive session a year, alternating between New York and Geneva, and one organizational session in New York. The substantive session includes a high-level meeting attended by Ministers, to discuss economic and social issues. Special sessions may be held if required. The President is elected for one year and is eligible for immediate re-election.

The subsidiary machinery of ECOSOC includes:

Eight Functional Commissions

Statistical Commission; Commission on Population and Development; Commission for Social Development; Commission on the Status of Women; Commission on Narcotic Drugs (and Subcommission on Illicit Drug Traffic and Related Matters in the Near and Middle East); Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice; Commission on Science and Technology for Development; United Nations Forum on Forests.

Five Regional Economic Commissions

ECA (Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia); ESCAP (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand); ECE (Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, Switzerland); ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile); ESCWA (Economic Commission for Western Asia, Beirut, Lebanon).

Three Standing Committees

Committee for Programme and Co-ordination; Commission on Non-Governmental Organizations; Committee on Negotiations with Intergovernmental Agencies.

In addition, the Council may consult international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and, after consultation with the member concerned, with national organizations. Over 3,000 organizations have consultative status. NGOs may send observers to ECOSOC’s public meetings and those of its subsidiary bodies, and may submit written statements relevant to its work. They may also consult with the UN Secretariat on matters of mutual concern. The term of office of the members listed below expires on 31 Dec. of each year.

Members

Andorra (2019), Angola (2021), Armenia (2021), Azerbaijan (2019), Belarus (2020), Benin (2019), Brazil (2021), Cambodia (2019), Cameroon (2019), Canada (2021), Chad (2019), China (2019), Colombia (2019), Denmark (2019), Ecuador (2020), Egypt (2021), El Salvador (2020), Eswatini (2019), Ethiopia (2021), France (2020), Germany (2020), Ghana (2020), India (2020), Iran (2021), Ireland (2020), Jamaica (2021), Japan (2020), Kenya (2021), South Korea (2019), Luxembourg (2021), Malaŵi (2020), Mali (2021), Malta (2020), Mexico (2020), Morocco (2020), Netherlands (2021), Norway (2019), Pakistan (2021), Paraguay (2021), Philippines (2020), Romania (2019), Russian Federation (2019), St Vincent and the Grenadines (2019), Saudi Arabia (2021), Sudan (2020), Togo (2020), Turkey (2020), Turkmenistan (2021), Ukraine (2021), UK (2019), USA (2021), Uruguay (2020), Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) (2019), Yemen (2019).

Finance

In 2013, US$25,840m. in socio-economic development assistance grants was provided through the organizations of the UN system.

4. The International Court of Justice (ICJ)

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the UN. It has a dual role: to settle in accordance with international law the legal disputes submitted to it by States; and to give opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized international organs and agencies.

The Court operates under a Statute of the United Nations Charter. Only States may apply to and appear before the court. The Court is composed of 15 judges, each of a different nationality, elected by an absolute majority by the General Assembly and the Security Council to nine-year terms of office. The composition of the Court must reflect the main forms of civilization and principal legal systems of the world. For a number of years the composition of the Court has maintained the following geographical balance: five seats on the bench are occupied by judges from Western Europe and other western states, three seats are occupied by African judges, three by Asian judges, two by judges from Eastern Europe and two by judges from Latin America. Elections are held every three years for one-third of the seats; retiring judges may be re-elected. Judges do not represent their respective governments but sit as independent magistrates. They must have the qualifications required in their respective countries for appointment to the highest judicial offices, or be jurists of recognized competence in international law. Candidates are nominated by the national panels of jurists in the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) established by The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907. The Court elects its own President and Vice-President for a three-year term, and is permanently in session.

Decisions are taken by a majority of judges present, subject to a quorum of nine members, with the President having a casting vote. Judgment is final and without appeal, but a revision may be applied for within ten years from the date of the judgment on the ground of new decisive evidence. When the Court does not include a judge of the nationality of a State party to a case, that State has the right to appoint a judge ad hoc for that case. While the Court normally sits in plenary session, it can form chambers of three or more judges to deal with specific matters. Judgments by chambers are considered as rendered by the full Court.

Judges

The nine-year terms of office of the judges currently serving end on 5 Feb. of each year indicated: Abdulqawi A. Yusuf, President (Somalia, 2027); Xue Hanqin, Vice-President (China, 2021); Ronny Abraham (France, 2027); Mohamed Bennouna (Morocco, 2024); Dalveer Bhandari (India, 2027); Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade (Brazil, 2027); James Crawford (Australia, 2024); Joan E. Donoghue (USA, 2024); Giorgio Gaja (Italy, 2021); Kirill Gevorgian (Russia, 2024); Yuji Iwasawa (Japan, 2021); Patrick L. Robinson (Jamaica, 2024); Nawaf Salam (Lebanon, 2027); Julia Sebutinde (Uganda, 2021); Peter Tomka (Slovakia, 2021).

Competence and Jurisdiction

In contentious cases, only States may apply to or appear before the Court. The conditions under which the Court will be open to non-member states are laid down by the Security Council. The jurisdiction of the Court covers all matters that parties refer to it and all matters provided for in the Charter or in treaties and conventions in force. Disputes concerning the jurisdiction of the Court are settled by the Court’s own decision. The Court may apply in its decision:
  1. (a)

    international conventions;

     
  2. (b)

    international custom;

     
  3. (c)

    the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations;

     
  4. (d)

    as subsidiary means for the determination of the rules of law, judicial decisions and the teachings of highly qualified publicists. If the parties agree, the Court may decide a case ex aequo et bono.

     

Since 1946 the Court has delivered 145 judgments on disputes concerning inter alia land frontiers and maritime boundaries, territorial sovereignty, the use of force, interference in the internal affairs of States, diplomatic relations, hostage-taking, the right of asylum, nationality, guardianship, rights of passage and economic rights.

The Court may also give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by the General Assembly, the Security Council, other duly authorized UN organs and agencies of the UN system.

Since 1946 the Court has given 28 advisory opinions, concerning inter alia admission to United Nations membership, reparation for injuries suffered in the service of the United Nations, the territorial status of South-West Africa (Namibia) and Western Sahara, expenses of certain United Nations operations, the status of human rights informers, the threat or use of nuclear weapons and legal consequences of the construction of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

Finance

Parties before the Court are not required to pay fees or administrative or linguistic costs, since these are borne by the UN. The only expenses incurred by States parties to cases before the ICJ are the fees of their counsel and advocates. States that would, however, experience financial difficulties may apply to the Trust Fund set up in 1989 by the Secretary-General of the UN. The Court’s budget for the biennium 2016–17 was US$45·8m.
  • Official languages: French and English.

  • Headquarters: Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, 2517 KJ The Hague, Netherlands.

  • Website: http://www.icj-cij.org

  • Registrar: Philippe Couvreur (Belgium).

5. The Secretariat

The Secretariat services the other four organs of the UN, carrying out their programmes, providing administrative support and information. It has a staff of 6,400 at the UN Headquarters in New York and a further 33,700 at other duty stations around the world. At its head is the Secretary-General, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term. The Secretary-General acts as chief administrative officer in all meetings of the General Assembly, Security Council and Economic and Social Council. An Office of Internal Oversight, established in 1994 under the tenure of former Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt), pursues a cost-saving mandate to investigate and eliminate waste, fraud and mismanagement within the system. The Secretary-General is assisted by Under-Secretaries-General and Assistant Secretaries-General. A new position of Deputy Secretary-General was agreed by the General Assembly in Dec. 1997 to assist in the running of the Secretariat and to raise the economic, social and development profile of the UN. Peacekeeping operations (PKOs) are chiefly run by Secretariat officials, who present a report to, and are authorized by, the Security Council.

Finance

The financial year coincides with the calendar year. The budget for the two-year period 2018–19 is US$5·40bn.
  • Headquarters: United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA.

  • Website: http://www.un.org

  • Secretary-General: António Guterres (in office since 1 Jan. 2017, Portugal).

  • Deputy Secretary-General: Amina J. Mohammed (in office since 1 Jan. 2017, Nigeria).

Secretaries-General since 1945

1945–46

UK

Gladwyn Jebb (acting)

1946–52

Norway

Trygve Halvdan Lie

1953–61

Sweden

Dag Hammarskjöld

1961–71

Burma

Sithu U Thant

1972–81

Austria

Kurt Waldheim

1982–91

Peru

Javier Pérez de Cuéllar

1992–96

Egypt

Boutros Boutros-Ghali

1997–2006

Ghana

Kofi Atta Annan

2007–16

South Korea

Ban Ki-moon

2017–

Portugal

António Guterres

The Trusteeship Council

was one of the principal organs, but has been inactive since 1994. It was established to ensure that governments responsible for administering Trust Territories take adequate steps to prepare them for self-government or independence. It consisted of the five permanent members of the Security Council. The task of decolonization was completed in 1994, when the Security Council terminated the Trusteeship Agreement for the last of the original UN Trusteeships (Palau), administered by the USA. All Trust Territories attained self-government or independence either as separate States or by joining neighbouring independent countries. The Council formally suspended operations on 1 Nov. 1994 following Palau’s independence. By a resolution adopted on 25 May 1994 the Council amended its rules of procedure to drop the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as occasion required.

The proposal from then Secretary-General Kofi Annan, in the second part of his reform programme, in July 1997, was that it should be used as a forum to exercise their ‘trusteeship’ for the global commons, environment and resource systems. However, in his 2005 report, In Larger Freedom, Annan called for the deletion of the Council from the UN Charter.

Current Leaders

António Guterres

Position

Secretary-General

Introduction

António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres took office as Secretary-General of the United Nations on 1 Jan. 2017. Having served as Portugal’s prime minister from 1995–2002, his UN appointment marked the first time that the position had been taken by a former head of government.

Early Life

Guterres was born on 30 April 1949 in Lisbon. Between 1966 and 1972 he studied electronic engineering at the capital’s Instituto Superior Técnico. A Catholic activist in the Juventude Universitária Católica (1968–72), he joined the Socialist Party (Partido Socialista; PS) during the 1974 revolution. He was a participant in post-revolution provisional governments and elected to the National Assembly in 1976, serving in the ministry of economics and finance until 1979. A member of the committee on European integration, which negotiated Portugal’s entry into the European Union in 1986, he returned to domestic politics the following year. Aiming to strengthen the PS in opposition, he promoted centrist policies and in 1992 he succeeded President Jorge Sampaio as party leader.

In the 1995 elections Guterres was elected prime minister with 43·9% of votes, ending ten years of rule by the centre-right Social Democrats (Partido Social Democrata; PSD). Winning with a centrist manifesto, he pledged to concentrate on social welfare, education and crime. He also planned a strict budgetary policy to prepare Portugal for adoption of the European single currency. In his first term, investment increased, public services and transport were improved and unemployment fell to 5%. Portugal adopted the single currency in 1999.

In Oct. 1999 Guterres was re-elected prime minister with 44·1% of votes while the PS’s parliamentary representation increased from 112 to 115 seats, although still short of an absolute majority. The following month he was also elected chairman of the Socialist International, having previously served a seven-year term as the organization’s vice president.

In 2000 a 10% increase in international oil prices and concerns over rising crime levels led to public discontent and the opposition mounted an unsuccessful no-confidence vote in parliament. Portugal had meanwhile taken over the EU presidency in the first half of the year. Guterres promoted a policy of encouraging greater labour mobility within the Union and in 2001 he called for more power for the European Commission and the European Parliament. Domestically, increased public spending caused economic problems and opposition politicians criticized the €400m. to be spent on hosting the Euro 2004 football tournament. In Dec. 2001 Guterres resigned as prime minister and called early elections.

In 2002 the PSD leader, José Manuel Durão Barroso, replaced him as prime minister. Guterres continued in his role as president of the Socialist International until 2006, while in June 2005 he became High Commissioner for Refugees at the United Nations. His ten years as head of that agency coincided with a series of refugee crises, including in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan, and he was outspoken in his calls for Western countries to offer greater assistance to migrants. In Feb. 2016 he submitted his nomination as Portugal’s candidate for the role of UN Secretary-General. After a strong performance in public hearings at the General Assembly, he was elected to the position in Oct. 2016 and took office on 1 Jan. 2017.

Career in Office

Guterres was elected despite expectations that the UN would appoint its first female Secretary-General. Against that backdrop, he nominated Amina J. Mohammed of Nigeria as deputy Secretary-General and she assumed office on the same day. On taking office Guterres appealed for 2017 to be a year for peace. However, in a depressing appraisal at the end of the year he warned that ‘unfortunately, in fundamental ways, the world has gone in reverse… conflicts have deepened and new dangers have emerged’. Alluding to the crisis over North Korea’s nuclear and missile tests, he said that global anxieties about nuclear weapons were the highest since the Cold War, while adding that climate change was accelerating, inequalities were growing and that there had been horrific violations of human rights. He concluded: ‘As we begin 2018, I call for unity… We can settle conflicts, overcome hatred and defend shared values. But we can only do that together.’

One year on in Dec., while acknowledging some reasons for optimism such as a rapprochement between Ethiopia and Eritrea and tentative peace talks in the conflicts in Yemen and South Sudan, Guterres again issued a gloomy global assessment: ‘Last New Year, I issued a red alert, and the dangers I mentioned still persist... Climate change is running faster than we are. Geopolitical divisions are deepening... and record numbers of people are moving in search of safety and protection. Inequality is growing. And people are questioning a world in which a handful of people hold the same wealth as half of humanity.᾿ He nevertheless maintained that the United Nations would ‘resolve to confront threats, defend human dignity and build a better future—together’.

Member States of the UN

The 193 member states, with percentage scale of contributions to the Regular Budget in 2018 and year of admission:
 

% contribution

Year of admission

Afghanistan

0·006

1946

Albania

0·008

1955

Algeria

0·161

1962

Andorra

0·006

1993

Angola

0·010

1976

Antigua and Barbuda

0·002

1981

Argentina1

0·892

1945

Armenia

0·006

1992

Australia1

2·337

1945

Austria

0·720

1955

Azerbaijan

0·060

1992

The Bahamas

0·014

1973

Bahrain

0·044

1971

Bangladesh

0·010

1974

Barbados

0·007

1966

Belarus1,2

0·056

1945

Belgium1

0·885

1945

Belize

0·001

1981

Benin

0·003

1960

Bhutan

0·001

1971

Bolivia1

0·012

1945

Bosnia and Herzegovina3

0·013

1992

Botswana

0·014

1966

Brazil1

3·823

1945

Brunei

0·029

1984

Bulgaria

0·045

1955

Burkina Faso

0·004

1960

Burundi

0·001

1962

Cabo Verde

0·001

1975

Cambodia

0·004

1955

Cameroon

0·010

1960

Canada1

2·921

1945

Central African Rep.

0·001

1960

Chad

0·005

1960

Chile1

0·399

1945

China1

7·921

1945

Colombia1

0·322

1945

Comoros

0·001

1975

Congo, Dem. Rep. of the4

0·008

1960

Congo, Rep. of the

0·006

1960

Costa Rica1

0·047

1945

Côte d’Ivoire

0·009

1960

Croatia5

0·099

1992

Cuba1

0·065

1945

Cyprus

0·043

1960

Czech Republic6

0·344

1993

Denmark1

0·584

1945

Djibouti

0·001

1977

Dominica

0·001

1978

Dominican Republic1

0·046

1945

Ecuador1

0·067

1945

Egypt1,7

0·152

1945

El Salvador1

0·014

1945

Equatorial Guinea

0·010

1968

Eritrea

0·001

1993

Estonia

0·038

1991

Eswatini

0·002

1968

Ethiopia1

0·010

1945

Fiji

0·003

1970

Finland

0·456

1955

France1

4·859

1945

Gabon

0·017

1960

The Gambia

0·001

1965

Georgia

0·008

1992

Germany8

6·389

1973

Ghana

0·016

1957

Greece1

0·471

1945

Grenada

0·001

1974

Guatemala1

0·028

1945

Guinea

0·002

1958

Guinea-Bissau

0·001

1974

Guyana

0·002

1966

Haiti1

0·003

1945

Honduras1

0·008

1945

Hungary

0·161

1955

Iceland

0·023

1946

India1

0·737

1945

Indonesia9

0·504

1950

Iran1

0·471

1945

Iraq1

0·129

1945

Ireland, Rep. of

0·335

1955

Israel

0·430

1949

Italy

3·748

1955

Jamaica

0·009

1962

Japan

9·680

1956

Jordan

0·020

1955

Kazakhstan

0·191

1992

Kenya

0·018

1963

Kiribati

0·001

1999

Korea, North

0·005

1991

Korea, South

2·039

1991

Kuwait

0·285

1963

Kyrgyzstan

0·002

1992

Laos

0·003

1955

Latvia

0·050

1991

Lebanon1

0·046

1945

Lesotho

0·001

1966

Liberia1

0·001

1945

Libya

0·125

1955

Liechtenstein

0·007

1990

Lithuania

0·072

1991

Luxembourg1

0·064

1945

Madagascar

0·003

1960

Malaŵi

0·002

1964

Malaysia10

0·322

1957

Maldives

0·002

1965

Mali

0·003

1960

Malta

0·016

1964

Marshall Islands

0·001

1991

Mauritania

0·002

1961

Mauritius

0·012

1968

Mexico1

1·435

1945

Micronesia

0·001

1991

Moldova

0·004

1992

Monaco

0·010

1993

Mongolia

0·005

1961

Montenegro11

0·004

2006

Morocco

0·054

1956

Mozambique

0·004

1975

Myanmar12

0·010

1948

Namibia

0·010

1990

Nauru

0·001

1999

Nepal

0·006

1955

Netherlands1

1·482

1945

New Zealand1

0·268

1945

Nicaragua1

0·004

1945

Niger

0·002

1960

Nigeria

0·209

1960

North Macedonia5

0·007

1993

Norway1

0·849

1945

Oman

0·113

1971

Pakistan

0·093

1947

Palau

0·001

1994

Panama1

0·034

1945

Papua New Guinea

0·004

1975

Paraguay1

0·014

1945

Peru1

0·136

1945

Philippines1

0·165

1945

Poland1

0·841

1945

Portugal

0·392

1955

Qatar

0·269

1971

Romania

0·184

1955

Russia1,13

3·088

1945

Rwanda

0·002

1962

St Kitts and Nevis

0·001

1983

St Lucia

0·001

1979

St Vincent and the Grenadines

0·001

1980

Samoa

0·001

1976

San Marino

0·003

1992

São Tomé and Príncipe

0·001

1975

Saudi Arabia1

1·146

1945

Senegal

0·005

1960

Serbia1,14,15

0·032

1945

Seychelles

0·001

1976

Sierra Leone

0·001

1961

Singapore16

0·447

1965

Slovakia6

0·160

1993

Slovenia5

0·084

1992

Solomon Islands

0·001

1978

Somalia

0·001

1960

South Africa1

0·364

1945

South Sudan

0·003

2011

Spain

2·443

1955

Sri Lanka

0·031

1955

Sudan

0·010

1956

Suriname

0·006

1975

Sweden

0·956

1946

Switzerland

1·140

2002

Syria1,17

0·024

1945

Tajikistan

0·004

1992

Tanzania18

0·010

1961

Thailand

0·291

1946

Timor-Leste

0·003

2002

Togo

0·001

1960

Tonga

0·001

1999

Trinidad and Tobago

0·034

1962

Tunisia

0·028

1956

Turkey1

1·018

1945

Turkmenistan

0·026

1992

Tuvalu

0·001

2000

Uganda

0·009

1962

Ukraine1

0·103

1945

United Arab

  

Emirates

0·604

1971

UK1

4·463

1945

USA1

22·000

1945

Uruguay1

0·079

1945

Uzbekistan

0·023

1992

Vanuatu

0·001

1981

Venezuela1

0·571

1945

Vietnam

0·058

1977

Yemen19

0·010

1947

Zambia

0·007

1964

Zimbabwe

0·004

1980

1Original member.

2As Byelorussia, 1945–91.

3Pre-independence (1992) as part of Yugoslavia, which was an original member.

4As Zaïre, 1960–97.

5Pre-independence (1991) as part of Yugoslavia, which was an original member.

6Pre-partition Czechoslovakia (1945–92) was an original member.

7As United Arab Republic, 1958–71, following union with Syria (1958–61).

8Pre-unification (1990) as two states: the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.

9Withdrew temporarily, 1965–66.

10As the Federation of Malaya till 1963, when the new federation of Malaysia (including Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah) was formed.

11Pre-independence (2006) as part of Yugoslavia, which was an original member, from 1945–2003 and Serbia and Montenegro from 2003–06.

12As Burma, 1948–89.

13As USSR, 1945–91.

14As Yugoslavia, 1945–2003, and Serbia and Montenegro, 2003–06.

15Excluded from the General Assembly in 1992; readmitted in Nov. 2000.

16As part of Malaysia, 1963–65.

17As United Arab Republic, by union with Egypt, 1958–61.

18As two states: Tanganyika, 1961–64, and Zanzibar, 1963–64, prior to union as one republic under new name.

19As Yemen, 1947–90, and Democratic Yemen, 1967–90, prior to merger of the two.

The USA is the leading contributor to the Peacekeeping Operations Budget, with 28·4344% of the total in 2018, followed by China (10·2377%), Japan (9·6800%), Germany (6·3890%), France (6·2801%), UK (5·7683%), Russia (3·9912%) and Italy (3·7480%). All other countries contribute less than 3%.

Publications

Yearbook of the United Nations. New York, 1947 ff.—UN Chronicle (quarterly).—Monthly Bulletin of Statistics.—Resolutions and Decisions Adopted by the General Assembly (annual; in three volumes).—Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Work of the Organization. 1946 ff.—Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice.—Security Council: Index to Proceedings; Resolutions and Decisions; Report.—Economic and Social Council: Index to Proceedings; Resolutions and Decisions; Report.—Demographic Yearbook. New York, 1948 ff.—The United Nations Today. New York, 2008.—Statistical Yearbook. New York, 1947 ff. (regional versions for: Africa; Asia and the Pacific; Latin America and the Caribbean).—World Economic and Social Survey. New York, 1947 ff.—Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific. New York, 1946 ff.—Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean. New York, 1948 ff.—Economic Survey of Europe. New York, 1948 ff.—Economic Development in Africa Report. Geneva, 2000 ff.—International Trade Statistics Yearbook (annual; in two volumes). 1992 ff.—World Economic Situation and Prospects. 1999 ff.—Energy Statistics Yearbook. 1956 ff.—The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook. 1976 ff.—Review of Maritime Transport. 1968 ff.—World Statistics Pocketbook. 1976 ff.—World Youth Report (biennial), 2003 ff.—United Nations Reference Guide in the Field of Human Rights. UN Centre for Human Rights, 1993.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

On 10 Dec. 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Preamble

Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Article 11

  1. (1)

    Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

     
  2. (2)

    No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

     

Article 12

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 13

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.

     
  2. (2)

    Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

     

Article 14

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

     
  2. (2)

    This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

     

Article 15

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to a nationality.

     
  2. (2)

    No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

     

Article 16

  1. (1)

    Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.

     
  2. (2)

    Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

     
  3. (3)

    The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

     

Article 17

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.

     
  2. (2)

    No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

     

Article 18

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Article 19

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

Article 20

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

     
  2. (2)

    No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

     

Article 21

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

     
  2. (2)

    Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.

     
  3. (3)

    The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

     

Article 22

Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of the State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Article 23

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.

     
  2. (2)

    Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.

     
  3. (3)

    Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.

     
  4. (4)

    Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

     

Article 24

Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 25

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

     
  2. (2)

    Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

     

Article 26

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

     
  2. (2)

    Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

     
  3. (3)

    Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

     

Article 27

  1. (1)

    Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

     
  2. (2)

    Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

     

Article 28

Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

Article 29

  1. (1)

    Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.

     
  2. (2)

    In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

     
  3. (3)

    These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

     

Article 30

Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

United Nations System

Programmes and Funds

Social and economic development, aimed at achieving a better life for people everywhere, is a major part of the UN system of organizations. At the forefront of efforts to bring about such progress is the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the UN’s global development network. UNDP works with people at all levels of society to help build nations that can withstand crisis, and drive and sustain the kind of growth that improves the quality of life for everyone. In 2014 UNDP programmes helped: empower people and build more resilient communities in 161 countries; create nearly 1m. jobs, 41% of them for women; strengthen livelihoods in low-income communities, benefitting 11·2m. people; combat climate change and mitigate its impacts in 140 countries; register 18m. new voters, including nearly 4m. in Afghanistan; train 2m. health workers to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria; improve energy access for 1·3m. people.

UNDP assistance is provided only at the request of governments and in response to their priority needs, integrated into overall national and regional plans. Its activities are funded entirely through voluntary contributions outside the regular UN budget. 80% of UNDP’s core programme resources go to low-income countries and Least Developed Countries (LDCs), with more than 50% of UNDP’s core programme resources going to Africa. Headquartered in New York, the UNDP is governed by a 36-member Executive Board, representing both developing and developed countries.

In addition to its regular programmes, UNDP administers various special-purpose funds, such as the UN Capital Development Fund (UNCDF), which offers a unique combination of investment capital, capacity building and technical advisory services to promote microfinance and local development in the LDCs and the United Nations Volunteers (UNV), which is the UN focal point for promoting and harnessing volunteerism for effective development. Together with the World Bank and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UNDP is one of the three implementing agencies of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the world’s largest fund for protecting the environment.

UNDP works with governments and local communities on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. In each country office, the UNDP Resident Representative normally also serves as the Resident Coordinator of development activities for the UN system as a whole.
  • Administrator: Achim Steiner (Brazil/Germany).

United Nations development and humanitarian agencies include the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). It was established in 1946 by the United Nations General Assembly as the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, to meet the emergency needs of children of post-war Europe. In 1953 the organization became a permanent part of the UN and its mandate was expanded to carry out long-term programmes to benefit children worldwide. Guided by the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocols and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, UNICEF supports programmes to improve the wellbeing of children and women in more than 150 countries and territories. UNICEF also provides relief and rehabilitation assistance in emergencies.

UNICEF’s strategic plan for 2018–21 is rooted in the aim of realizing the rights of every child, especially the most disadvantaged. UNICEF’s strategy to achieve this incorporates several strands, including:
  1. (a)

    Every child survives and thrives

     
  2. (b)

    Every child learns

     
  3. (c)

    Every child is protected from violence and exploitation

     
  4. (d)

    Every child lives in a safe and clean environment

     
  5. (e)

    Every child has an equitable chance in life

     
UNICEF’s work in recent years has contributed to progress towards several Millennium Development Goals, including the steady decline of under-five mortality; a reduction in the number of primary-age out-of-school children; a decrease in the number of underweight children aged under five; an increase in birth registration; sustainable access to safe drinking water; and prevention of mother-to-child transmission and new infections among young people of HIV.
  • Executive Director: Henrietta H. Fore (USA).

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) became operational in 1969 and is the leading provider of United Nations assistance in the field of population. Its mandate is to build the knowledge and the capacity to respond to needs in population and family planning; to promote awareness in both developed and developing countries of population problems and possible strategies to deal with these problems; to assist their population problems in the forms and means best suited to the individual countries’ needs; to assume a leading role in the United Nations system in promoting population programmes, and to co-ordinate projects supported by the Fund.

UNFPA’s mission is to ensure that every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person’s potential is fulfilled. Since UNFPA started working in 1969 the number of women dying from complications of pregnancy or childbirth has been halved. It works in more than 150 countries and territories that are home to the vast majority of the world’s people. In 2015 UNFPA total gross contribution revenue was US$979∙5m. Main programme expenses by focus area are: maternal and new-born health, 26∙2%; family planning, 24∙6%; programme co-ordination and assistance, 10∙4%. UNFPA’s The State of World Population report is published annually.
  • Executive Director: Dr Natalia Kanem (Panama).

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), established in 1972, works to encourage sustainable development through sound environmental practices everywhere. UNEP has its headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya and regional offices in Bangkok, Geneva, Manama, Panama City and Washington, D.C. Its activities cover a wide range of issues, from atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, to the promotion of environmental science and information, to an early warning and emergency response capacity to deal with environmental disasters and emergencies. UNEP’s present priorities include: environmental information, assessment and research; enhanced co-ordination of environmental conventions and development of policy instruments; fresh water; technology transfer and industry; and support to Africa. Information networks and monitoring systems established by the UNEP include: the Global Environment Information Exchange Network (INFOTERRA); Global Resource Information Database (GRID); the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC); and the recent UNEP.net, a web-based interactive catalogue and multifaceted portal that offers access to environmentally relevant geographic, textual and pictorial information. In June 2000 the World Conservation and Monitoring Centre (WCMC) based in Cambridge, UK became UNEP’s key biodiversity assessment centre. UNEP’s latest state-of-the-environment report is Frontiers 2017: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern.
  • Executive Director: Erik Solheim (Norway).

Other UN programmes working for development include: the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), which promotes international trade, particularly by developing countries, in an attempt to increase their participation in the global economy; and the World Food Programme (WFP), the world’s largest international food aid organization, which is dedicated to both emergency relief and development programmes.

The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), which assists over 600m. people living in health-threatening housing conditions, was established in 1978. The 58-member Governing Council, Habitat’s governing body, meets every two years. The Centre serves as the focal point for human settlements action and the co-ordination of activities within the UN system.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) educates the world about the dangers of drug abuse; strengthens international action against drug production, trafficking and drug related crime; promotes efforts to reduce drug abuse, particularly among the young and vulnerable; builds local, national and international partnerships to address drug issues; provides information, analysis and expertise on the drug issue; promotes international co-operation in crime prevention and control; supports the development of criminal justice systems; and assists member states in addressing the challenges and threats posed by the changing nature of transnational organized crime.
  • Executive Director: Yury Fedotov (Russia).

The UN work in crime prevention and criminal justice aims to lessen the human and material costs of crime and its impact on socio-economic development. The UN Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders has convened every five years since 1955 and provides a forum for the presentation of policies and progress. The Thirteenth Crime Congress (Doha, 2015) had as its theme ‘Integrating crime prevention and criminal justice into the wider United Nations agenda to address social and economic challenges and to promote the rule of law at the national and international levels, and public participation’. The Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, a functional body of ECOSOC, established in 1992, seeks to strengthen UN activities in the field, and meets annually in Vienna. The interregional research and training arm of the UN crime and criminal justice programme is the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) in Rome.

Humanitarian assistance to refugees and victims of natural and man-made disasters is also an important function of the UN system. The main refugee organizations within the system are the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA).

UNHCR was created in 1951 to resettle 1·2m. European refugees left homeless in the aftermath of the Second World War. It was initially envisioned as a temporary office with a projected lifespan of three years. However, in 2003, in a move to strengthen UNHCR’s capacity to carry out its work more effectively, the General Assembly removed the time limitation on the organization’s mandate and extended it indefinitely, until ‘the refugee problem is solved’. Today, with some 58·0m. persons of concern across the globe, UNHCR has become one of the world’s principal humanitarian agencies. Its Executive Committee currently comprises 98 member states. With its Headquarters in Geneva, UNHCR has a national and international staff of 11,000 working in 130 countries. The organization has twice been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. UNHCR is a subsidiary organ of the United Nations General Assembly.

The work of UNHCR is humanitarian and non-political. International protection is its primary function. Its main objective is to promote and safeguard the rights and interests of refugees. In so doing UNHCR devotes special attention to promoting access to asylum and seeks to improve the legal, material and physical safety of refugees in their country of residence. Crucial to this status is the principle of non-refoulement, which prohibits the expulsion from or forcible return of refugees to a country where they may have reason to fear persecution. UNHCR pursues its objectives in the field of protection by encouraging the conclusion of intergovernmental legal instruments in favour of refugees, by supervising the implementation of their provisions and by encouraging governments to adopt legislation and administrative procedures for the benefit of refugees. UNHCR is often called upon to provide material assistance (e.g. the provision of food, shelter, medical care and essential supplies) while durable solutions are being sought. Durable solutions generally take one of three forms: voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement in another country.

UNHCR co-operates both multilaterally and bilaterally with a wide range of partners in order to fulfil its mandate for refugees and other people of concern to the Office. Partners include UN co-ordination bodies, other UN agencies and departments, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), universities and research institutes, regional organizations, foundations and corporate entities from the private sector, as well as governments, host communities and refugee and other displaced population representatives. In response to calls by the international community to improve the global humanitarian response capacity, today UNHCR is playing an active role in the inter-agency ‘cluster leadership approach’ with respect to protecting and assisting internally displaced persons. UNHCR’s involvement is focused on conflict-generated situations of internal displacement, where it leads the protection ‘cluster’, the camp co-ordination and camp management ‘cluster’ and the emergency shelter ‘cluster’. At present, UNHCR is funded almost entirely by voluntary contributions. In 2016 UNHCR’s expenditure amounted to US$3·96bn.
  • High Commissioner: Filippo Grandi (Italy).

UNRWA was created by the General Assembly in 1949 as a temporary, non-political agency to provide relief to the nearly 750,000 people who became refugees as a result of the disturbances during and after the creation of the State of Israel in the former British Mandate territory of Palestine. ‘Palestine refugees’, as defined by UNRWA’s mandate, are persons or descendants of persons whose normal residence was Palestine for at least two years prior to the 1948 conflict and who, as a result of the conflict, lost their homes and means of livelihood. UNRWA has also been called upon to help persons displaced by renewed hostilities in the Middle East in 1967. The situation of Palestine refugees in south Lebanon, affected in the aftermath of the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, was of special concern to the Agency in 1984. UNRWA provides education, health, relief and social services to eligible refugees among the 4·8m. registered Palestine refugees in its five fields of operation: Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Its mandate is renewed at intervals by the UN General Assembly, and in Dec. 2016 was extended until 30 June 2020. The regular budget for 2015 amounted to US$743∙8m.
  • Commissioner-General: Pierre Krähenbühl (Switzerland).

The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) represents the world’s commitment to universal ideals of human dignity. The UN’s activities in the field of human rights are the primary responsibility of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, a post established in 1993 under the direction and authority of the Secretary-General. The High Commissioner is nominated by the Secretary-General for a four-year term, renewable once. The principal co-ordinating human rights organ of the UN was until mid-2006 the 53-member Commission on Human Rights, set up by ECOSOC in 1946. On 15 March 2006 the UN General Assembly voted overwhelmingly to abolish the Commission after it was criticized for having member countries with poor human rights records. A 47-member Human Rights Council was established as its successor and held its first session in June 2006. In June 2018 the USA withdrew from the Council, accusing the organization of political bias.
  • High Commissioner: Michelle Bachelet (Chile).

Research and Training Institutes

There are six research and training institutes within the UN, all of them autonomous.

United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)

Established in 1980 to undertake research on disarmament and security with the aim of assisting the international community in their disarmament thinking, decisions and efforts. Through its research projects, publications, small meetings and expert networks, UNIDIR promotes creative thinking and dialogue on both current and future security issues, through examination of topics as varied as tactical nuclear weapons, refugee security, computer warfare, regional confidence-building measures and small arms.

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)

Founded in 1965, UNITAR is the leading UN institute offering training on global and strategic challenges. As an autonomous body within the UN system, UNITAR is led by an Executive Director, governed by a Board of Trustees and is supported by voluntary contributions from governments, intergovernmental organizations, foundations and the private sector. With nearly 40,000 beneficiaries in 2015 the Institute provides short executive training to national and local government officials of UN member states and civil society representatives around the world. UNITAR aims to meet the growing demand, especially from the least developed countries, for capacity development in the fields of environment, peace, security and diplomacy, and governance.

United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)

Established in 1967 to support countries worldwide in crime prevention and criminal justice, UNICRI offers technical co-operation, research and training at various levels for governments and the international community as a whole. The institute particularly focuses on security and counter-terrorism, counter-trafficking and preventing money laundering.

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)

Established in 1963 to conduct multidisciplinary research into the social dimensions of contemporary problems affecting development, it aims to provide governments, development agencies, grassroots organizations and scholars with a better understanding of how development policies and processes of economic, social and environmental change affect different social groups.

United Nations System Staff College (UNSSC)

Established in 2002 as the pre-eminent learning arm of the UN, the College develops, co-ordinates and provides cross-organization training programmes with a view to strengthening collaboration within the UN system and increasing operational effectiveness. The UNSCC reaches an average of 7,000 beneficiaries worldwide every year.

United Nations University (UNU)

Sponsored jointly by the UN and UNESCO, UNU is guaranteed academic freedom by a charter approved by the General Assembly in 1973. It is governed by the UNU Council, composed of 13 appointed members who serve six-year terms (in an individual capacity, not as representatives of their countries), three ex officio members (the UN Secretary-General, the UNESCO Director-General and the UNITAR Executive Director) and the UNU Rector. Unlike a traditional university with a campus, students and faculty, it works through networks of collaborating institutions and individuals to undertake multidisciplinary research on problems of human survival, development and welfare; and to strengthen research and training capabilities in developing countries. It also provides postgraduate fellowships and PhD internships to scholars and scientists from developing countries. The University focuses its work within two programme areas: peace and governance, and environment and development.
  • Address: 5–53–70 Jingumae, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8925, Japan.

  • Website: http://www.unu.edu

Other UN Entities

In addition to the operational programmes and funds and the research and training institutes there are several other entities that fall within the UN system.

International Computing Centre (ICC)

The Centre was established in 1971 as a common service, providing a wide range of Information and Communication Technology Services, on a cost recovery basis, to its users worldwide. More than 25 organizations, funds and programmes of the UN system currently use its services and participate in its governance.

Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)

In 1996 the Assembly reviewed implementation of the global strategy for the prevention and control of AIDS, and progress of the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), which became operational in 1996. The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was seen to be expanding and intensifying, particularly in developing countries, and new resource mobilization mechanisms were called for to support countries in combating HIV/AIDS. UNAIDS brings together the HIV/AIDS responses of 11 co-sponsor UN agencies, providing an overall framework for action and ensuring better co-ordination between its members. The co-sponsor agencies are: International Labour Organization (ILO), Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), World Bank, World Food Programme (WFP) and World Health Organization (WHO). The proposed budget for 2016–17 amounted to US$484·8m.

UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS)

Established in 1995, the self-funding unit provides a range of services for other organizations in the UN system, the private sector, NGOs and academic institutions. Services offered include procurement, recruitment and human resources, and loan supervision.

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women)

Established in July 2010, UN Women supports international political negotiations to formulate globally agreed standards for gender equality and helps UN member states to implement those standards by providing expertise and financial support. It merges and builds on the work of four previously distinct parts of the UN system: the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI) and the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM).

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)

Established in 1999 after the UN General Assembly adopted an international strategy for disaster reduction, UNISDR is the focal point in the UN system for the co-ordination of disaster risk reduction (DRR) and the implementation of the international blueprint for DRR. Its core areas of work include ensuring DRR is applied to climate change adaptation, increasing investments for DRR, building disaster-resilient cities, schools and hospitals, and strengthening the international system for DRR.

Information

The UN Statistics Division in New York provides a wide range of statistical outputs and services for producers and users of statistics worldwide, facilitating national and international policy formulation, implementation and monitoring. It produces printed publications of statistics and statistical methods in the fields of international merchandise trade, national accounts, demography and population, gender, industry, energy, environment, human settlements and disability, as well as general statistics compendiums including the Statistical Yearbook and World Statistics Pocketbook. Many of its databases are available on CD-ROM and the internet.

Specialized Agencies of the UN

The intergovernmental agencies related to the UN by special agreements are separate autonomous organizations which work with the UN and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Economic and Social Council. Of these, 19 are ‘Specialized Agencies’ within the terms of the UN Charter, and report annually to ECOSOC.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Origin

In 1943 the International Conference on Food and Agriculture, at Hot Springs, Virginia, set up an Interim Commission, based in Washington, with a remit to establish an organization. Its Constitution was signed on 16 Oct. 1945 in Quebec City. Today, membership totals 194 countries plus one member organization and two associate members. The European Union was made a member as a ‘regional economic integration organization’ in 1991.

Aims and Activities

The aims of FAO are to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production and distribution of all food and agricultural products from farms, forests and fisheries; to improve the living conditions of rural populations; and, by these means, to eliminate hunger. Its priority objectives are to encourage sustainable agriculture and rural development as part of a long-term strategy for the conservation and management of natural resources; and to ensure the availability of adequate food supplies, by maximizing stability in the flow of supplies and securing access to food by the poor.

In carrying out these aims, FAO promotes investment in agriculture, better soil and water management, improved yields of crops and livestock, agricultural research and the transfer of technology to developing countries; and encourages the conservation of natural resources and rational use of fertilizers and pesticides; the development and sustainable utilization of marine and inland fisheries; the sustainable management of forest resources and the combating of animal disease. Technical assistance is provided in all of these fields, and in nutrition, agricultural engineering, agrarian reform, development communications, remote sensing for climate and vegetation, and the prevention of post-harvest food losses. In addition, FAO works to maintain global biodiversity with the emphasis on the genetic diversity of crop plants and domesticated animals; and plays a major role in the collection, analysis and dissemination of information on agricultural production and commodities. Finally, FAO acts as a neutral forum for the discussion of issues, and advises governments on policy, through international conferences like the World Food Summit in 1996, the World Food Summit: five years later in 2002 and the World Summit on Food Security in 2009, all held in Rome.

Special FAO programmes help countries prepare for, and provide relief in the event of, emergency food situations, in particular through the rehabilitation of agriculture after disasters. The Special Programme for Food Security, launched in 1994, is designed to assist target countries to increase food production and productivity as rapidly as possible, primarily through the widespread adoption by farmers of available improved production technologies, with the emphasis on high-potential areas. FAO provides support for the global co-ordination of the programme and helps attract funds. The Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES), established in 1994, strengthens FAO’s existing contribution to the prevention, control and eradication of diseases and pests before they compromise food security, with locusts and rinderpest among its priorities. The Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) provides current information on the world food situation and identifies countries threatened by shortages to guide potential donors. The interagency Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System initiative (FIVIMS) was established in 1997, with FAO as its Secretariat. Together with the UN, FAO sponsors the World Food Programme (WFP).

Finance

The FAO regular budget for the 2018–19 biennium was US$1,005·6m. FAO’s overall programme of work is funded by assessed and voluntary contributions. Member countries’ assessed contributions comprise the regular budget, set at the biennial FAO Conference.

The total FAO Budget planned for 2018–19 was US$2·6bn. Of this amount 39% was to come from assessed contributions paid by member countries, with 61% mobilized through voluntary contributions from members and other partners.

The voluntary contributions provided by members and other partners support technical and emergency (including rehabilitation) assistance to governments for clearly defined purposes linked to the results framework, as well as direct support to FAO’s core work. The voluntary contributions were expected to reach approximately US$1·6bn. in 2018–19.

In 2014–15, 304 projects totalling US$98·7m. were approved for development support.

Organization

The FAO Conference, composed of all members, meets every other year to determine policy and approve the FAO’s budget and programme. The 49-member Council, elected by the Conference, serves as FAO’s governing body between conference sessions. Much of its work is carried out by dozens of regional or specialist commissions, such as the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission, the European Commission on Agriculture and the Commission on Plant Genetic Resources. The Director-General is elected for a renewable six-year term.
  • Headquarters: Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.

  • Website: http://www.fao.org

  • Director-General: José Graziano da Silva (Brazil).

Publications

Unasylva, 1947 ff.—The State of Food and Agriculture, 1947 ff.—FAO Statistical Yearbook: World Food and Agriculture, 2004 ff. (regional versions for: Africa; Asia and the Pacific; Europe and Central Asia; Latin America and the Caribbean; Near East and North Africa).—Commodity Market Review (biennial), 1961 ff.—FAO Yearbook of Forest Products, 1947 ff.—FAO Yearbook. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics.The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (biennial).—The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 1999 ff.—The State of the World’s Forests, 1995 ff.—World Watch List: for Domestic Animal Diversity. 3rd ed. 2000.—Food and Nutrition in Numbers (online only). 2014.

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) — The World Bank

Origin

Conceived at the UN Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, USA) in July 1944, the IBRD, frequently called the World Bank, began operations in June 1946, its purpose being to provide funds, policy guidance and technical assistance to facilitate economic development in its poorer member countries. The Group comprises four other organizations: the International Development Association (IDA), which provides interest-free loans and grants to governments of the poorest countries; the International Finance Corporation (IFC), which provides loans, equity and technical assistance to stimulate private sector investment in developing countries; the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), which provides guarantees against losses caused by non-commercial risks to investors in developing countries; and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), which provides international facilities for conciliation and arbitration of investment disputes.

Members

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaŵi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Macedonia, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, UK, USA, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Activities

The Bank obtains its funds from the following sources: capital paid in by member countries; sales of its own securities; sales of parts of its loans; repayments; and net earnings. A resolution of the Board of Governors of 27 April 1988 provides that the paid-in portion of the shares authorized to be subscribed under it will be 3%.

The Bank is self-supporting, raising most of its money on the world’s financial markets. In the fiscal year ending 30 June 2015 allocable income totalled US$686m., compared to US$769m. for the year ending 30 June 2014.

In the fiscal year 2015 the Bank lent US$23∙5bn. for 112 new operations. Cumulative lending had totalled US$629bn. by June 2015.

The Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP) works toward a world in which everyone has access to the financial services they need to improve their lives. Established in 1995 and housed at the World Bank, CGAP combines a pragmatic approach to market development with an evidence-based advocacy platform to advance poor people’s access to finance. Its global network of members includes over 30 development agencies, private foundations and national governments that share a common vision of improving the lives of poor people with better access to finance.

For the purposes of its analytical and operational work, in 2017 the IBRD characterized economies as follows: low income (average annual per capita gross national income of $1,005 or less); lower middle income (between $1,006 and $3,955); upper middle income (between $3,956 and $12,235); and high income ($12,236 or more).

A wide variety of technical assistance is at the core of IBRD’s activities. It acts as executing agency for a number of pre-investment surveys financed by the UN Development Programme. There are more than 100 offices in countries throughout the world. The Bank maintains a staff college, the World Bank Institute in Washington, D.C., for senior officials of member countries.

Access to Information

Effective 1 July 2010, the World Bank Policy on Access to Information marked a pivotal shift in the World Bank’s approach to making information available to the public. Now the public can obtain more information about projects under preparation, projects under implementation, analytic and advisory activities, and Board proceedings. The policy also includes a clear process for making information publicly available and a right to appeal if information seekers believe they were improperly or unreasonably denied access to information or there is a public interest case to override an exception that restricts certain information.

Organization

As of Feb. 2019 the Bank had 189 members, each with voting power in the institution, based on shareholding which in turn is based on a country’s economic growth. The president is selected by the Bank’s Board of Executive Directors. The initial term is five years, with a second of five years or less.

Current Leaders

Kristalina Georgieva

Position

Interim President

Introduction

Kristalina Georgieva became interim president of the World Bank Group in Feb. 2019, following the unexpected resignation of Jim Yong Kim. The Bulgarian-born economist and academic had begun work at the World Bank in the 1990s, specializing in sustainable development, and also previously served as a vice-president of the European Commission.

Early Life

Georgieva was born on 13 Aug. 1953 in Sofia, Bulgaria, and studied political economy and sociology at the Karl Marx Higher Institute of Economics in Sofia (now the University of National and World Economy). Awarded a doctorate in economic science in 1977, she went on to become an associate professor at the university and remained there until 1991. Two years later, she joined the World Bank in Washington, D.C., in the USA as an environmental economist. She later became its director in charge of environmental strategy, policies and lending.

In 2004 Georgieva moved to Moscow and served for three years as the World Bank’s director for the Russian Federation. She then returned to Washington D.C, and led policy and lending operations in infrastructure, urban development, agriculture, environment and social development. As vice-president and corporate secretary of the World Bank from 2008–10, she liaised between senior management and the Bank’s shareholder countries, playing a key role in reforming the organization’s governance in the wake of the 2008 international financial crisis.

In 2010 she was approved as the European Union’s commissioner for international co-operation, humanitarian aid and crisis response. She oversaw humanitarian relief for the survivors of earthquakes in Haiti and Chile and flooding in Pakistan. Her tenure saw an increase in spending on aid and improvements in efficiency through schemes such as the Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre. In 2014 she was appointed the European Commission’s vice-president for budget and human resources.

Georgieva returned to the World Bank in Oct. 2016, when she was appointed Chief Executive Officer. When Jim Yong Kim unexpectedly resigned as World Bank president in Jan. 2019, more than three years before the end of his term, the Bank announced that Georgieva would take over in an interim capacity.

Career in Office

As interim president, Georgieva will lead the organization’s work to end extreme poverty by 2030, reduce inequality and boost shared prosperity around the world.

European office: 66 avenue d’Iéna, 75116 Paris, France. London office: Milbank Tower, 12th Floor, 21–24 Milbank, London, SW1P 4QP, England. Tokyo office: 10th Floor, Fukoku Seimei Building, 2-2-2 Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0011 Japan.
  • Headquarters: 1818 H St., NW, Washington, D.C., 20433, USA.

  • Website: http://www.worldbank.org

  • Interim President: Kristalina Georgieva (Bulgaria).

Publications

World Bank Annual Report.—Publications and e-Products e-Catalog (biannual).—World Development Report (annual).—Environment Matters at the World Bank (annual).—World Bank Research Digest (quarterly).—World Development Indicators (annual).—World Bank Research E-Newsletter (monthly).—Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices (online only). 2010.—The New Microfinance Handbook: A Financial Market System Perspective (online only). 2013.

International Development Association (IDA)

A lending agency established in 1960 and administered by the IBRD to provide assistance on concessional terms to the poorest developing countries. Its resources consist of subscriptions and general replenishments from its more industrialized and developed members, special contributions and transfers from the net earnings of IBRD. Officers and staff of the IBRD serve concurrently as officers and staff of the IDA at the World Bank headquarters (see above). In fiscal year 2015 IDA commitments totalled US$19bn.; new commitments totalled 191 new operations. Since 1960 IDA has lent US$312bn. to 112 countries.
  • Headquarters: 1818 H St., NW, Washington, D.C., 20433, USA.

  • Website: http://ida.worldbank.org

  • President: Kristalina Georgieva (Bulgaria).

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

Established in 1956 to help strengthen the private sector in developing countries, through the provision of long-term loans, equity investments, quasi-equity instruments, standby financing, and structured finance and risk management products. It helps to finance new ventures and assist established enterprises as they expand, upgrade or diversify. In partnership with other donors, it provides a variety of technical assistance and advisory services to public and private sector clients. To be eligible for financing, projects must be profitable for investors, must benefit the economy of the country concerned, and must comply with IFC’s environmental and social guidelines.

The majority of its funds are borrowed from the international financial markets through public bond issues or private placements. Total capital at 30 June 2018 was US$26·1bn. In fiscal year 2018 IFC’s long-term investment commitments totalled US$23·3bn., including US$11·7bn. mobilized from investment partners. It has 184 members.
  • Headquarters: 2121 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, D.C., 20433, USA.

  • Website: http://www.ifc.org

  • President: Kristalina Georgieva (Bulgaria).

  • Chief Executive Officer: Philippe Le Houérou (France).

Publications

Annual Report (online only), 1995 ff.—Sustain (online only).—Doing Business (online only), 2004 ff.

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

Established in 1988 to encourage the flow of foreign direct investment to, and among, developing member countries, MIGA is the insurance arm of the World Bank. It provides investors with investment guarantees against non-commercial risk, such as expropriation and war, and gives advice to governments on improving climate for foreign investment. It may insure up to 90% of an investment, with a current limit of US$50m. per project. In March 1999 the Council of Governors adopted a resolution for a capital increase for the Agency of approximately US$850m. In addition US$150m. was transferred to MIGA by the World Bank as operating capital. In Jan. 2019 it had 181 member countries. Like IDA and ICSID, it is located at the World Bank headquarters in Washington (see above).
  • Headquarters: 1818 H St., NW, Washington, D.C., 20433, USA.

  • Website: http://www.miga.org

  • President: Kristalina Georgieva (Bulgaria).

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)

Founded in 1966 to promote increased flows of international investment by providing facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of disputes between governments and foreign investors. The Centre does not engage in such conciliation or arbitration. This is the task of conciliators and arbitrators appointed by the contracting parties, or as otherwise provided for in the Convention. Recourse to conciliation and arbitration by members is entirely voluntary.

In Jan. 2019 its Convention had 162 signatory countries. 423 cases had been concluded by it and 240 were pending. Disputes involved a variety of investment sectors: agriculture, banking, construction, energy, health, industrial, mining and tourism.

ICSID also undertakes research, publishing and advisory activities in the field of foreign investment law. Like IDA and MIGA, it is located at the World Bank headquarters in Washington (see above).
  • Headquarters: 1818 H St., NW, MSN J2-200, Washington, D.C., 20433, USA.

  • Website: https://icsid.worldbank.org

  • Secretary-General: Meg Kinnear (Canada).

Publications

ICSID Annual Report.—ICSID Review: Foreign Investment Law Journal (three times a year).—Investment Laws of the World.—Investment Treaties.—ICSID Convention, Regulations and Rules.—The ICSID Caseload – Statistics (biannual).

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Origin

The Convention providing for the establishment of the ICAO was drawn up by the International Civil Aviation Conference held in Chicago in 1944. A Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) operated for 20 months until the formal establishment of ICAO on 4 April 1947. The Convention on International Civil Aviation superseded the provisions of the Paris Convention of 1919 and the Pan American Convention on Air Navigation of 1928.

Functions

It assists international civil aviation by establishing technical standards for safety and efficiency of air navigation and promoting simpler procedures at borders; develops regional plans for ground facilities and services needed for international flying; disseminates air-transport statistics and prepares studies on aviation economics; fosters the development of air law conventions and provides technical assistance to states in developing civil aviation programmes.

Organization

The principal organs of ICAO are an Assembly, consisting of all members of the Organization, and a Council, which is composed of 36 states elected by the Assembly for three years, which meets in virtually continuous session. In electing these states, the Assembly must give adequate representation to: (1) states of major importance in air transport; (2) states which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for the international civil air navigation; and (3) those states not otherwise included whose election would ensure that all major geographical areas of the world were represented. The budget approved for 2016 was $99·0m. CDN.
  • Headquarters: 999 Robert-Bourassa Blvd, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7.

  • Website: http://www.icao.int

  • President of the Council: Dr Olumuyiwa Benard Aliu (Nigeria).

  • Secretary-General: Fang Lui (China).

Publications

Annual Report of the Council.—ICAO Journal (quarterly).—ICAO Training Report (biannual).—ICAO Regional Report.

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)

The idea for an International Fund for Agricultural Development arose at the 1974 World Food Conference. An agreement to establish IFAD entered into force on 30 Nov. 1977, and the agency began its operations the following month. IFAD is an international financial institution and a United Nations specialized agency dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries. It mobilizes resources from its 176 member countries to provide low-interest loans and grants to help middle and low-income member countries fight poverty in their poor rural communities. IFAD works with national partners to design and implement innovative initiatives that fit within national policies and systems. These enable poor rural people to access the assets, services, knowledge, skills and opportunities they need to overcome poverty. Since starting operations in 1978, IFAD has invested more than US$17bn. in around 1,000 projects and programmes that have reached some 500m. people.

Organization

The highest body is the Governing Council, on which all 176 member countries are represented. Operations are overseen by an 18-member Executive Board (with 18 alternate members), which is responsible to the Governing Council. The Fund works with many partner institutions, including the World Bank, regional development banks and financial agencies, and other UN agencies; many of these co-finance IFAD programmes and projects.
  • Headquarters: Via Paolo di Dono 44, 00142 Rome, Italy.

  • Website: http://www.ifad.org

  • President: Gilbert F. Houngbo (Togo).

Publications

Annual Report, 1997 ff.—Polishing the Stone. 2007.—What Meets the Eye: Images of Rural Poverty. 2003.

International Labour Organization (ILO)

Origin

The ILO was established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles as an autonomous institution associated with the League of Nations. An agreement establishing its relationship with the UN was approved in 1946, making the ILO the first Specialized Agency to be associated with the UN. An intergovernmental agency with a tripartite structure, in which representatives of governments, employers and workers participate, it seeks through international action to improve labour and living conditions, to promote productive employment and social justice for working people everywhere. On its fiftieth anniversary in 1969 it was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In Jan. 2019 it numbered 187 members.

Functions

The ILO’s programme and budget set out four strategic objectives for the Organization at the turn of the century: i) to promote and realize fundamental principles and rights at work; ii) to create greater opportunities for women and men to secure decent employment and income; iii) to enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection for all; iv) to strengthen tripartism and social dialogue. The International Labour Conference 2017 adopted a budget of US$784·1m. for the 2018–19 biennium.

One of the ILO’s principal functions is the formulation of international standards in the form of International Labour Conventions and Recommendations. Member countries are required to submit Conventions to their competent national authorities with a view to ratification. If a country ratifies a Convention it agrees to bring its laws into line with its terms and to report periodically how these regulations are being applied. More than 8,000 ratifications of 189 Conventions had been deposited by 31 Jan. 2016. Procedures are in place to ascertain whether Conventions thus ratified are effectively applied. Recommendations do not require ratification, but member states are obliged to consider them with a view to giving effect to their provisions by legislation or other action. By 31 Jan. 2016 the International Labour Conference had adopted 204 Recommendations.

In June 1998 delegates to the 86th International Labour Conference adopted an ILO Declaration in Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, committing the Organization’s member states to respect the principles inherent in a number of core labour standards: the right of workers and employers to freedom of association and the effective right to collective bargaining, and to work toward the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour, the effective abolition of child labour and the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

Activities

In addition to its research and advisory activities, the ILO now conducts more than 1,000 technical co-operation programmes in over 80 countries with the help of some 60 donor institutions worldwide. The ILO has decentralized most such activities to its regional, area and branch offices in over 40 countries. Decent Work Country Programmes have been established as the main vehicle for delivery of ILO support to countries.

The ILO’s standard-setting and technical co-operation are reinforced by an extensive research, training, education and publications programme. It has established two specialized educational institutions: the International Institute for Labour Studies in Geneva, and the International Centre for Advanced Technical and Vocational Training in Turin.

The International Institute for Labour Studies promotes the study and discussion of policy issues. The core theme of its activities is the interaction between labour institutions, development and civil society in a global economy. It identifies emerging social and labour issues by opening up new areas for research and action; and encourages systematic dialogue on social policy between the tripartite constituency of the ILO and the international academic community, and other public opinion-makers.

The International Training Centre was set up in 1965 to lead the training programmes implemented by the ILO as part of its technical co-operation activities. Member states and the UN system also call on its resources and experience, and a UN Staff College was established on the Turin Campus in 1996.

In June 2009 the International Labour Conference unanimously adopted a ‘Global Jobs Pact’ to address the social and employment impact of the recent international financial and economic crisis. The Pact promotes a productive recovery centred on investments, employment and social protection. It provides an internationally agreed basis for policy-making designed to reduce the time lag between economic recovery and a recovery with decent work opportunities.

Organization

The International Labour Conference is the supreme deliberative organ of the ILO; it meets annually in Geneva. National delegations are composed of two government delegates, one employers’ delegate and one workers’ delegate. The Governing Body, elected by the Conference, is the Executive Council. It is composed of 28 government members, 14 workers’ members and 14 employers’ members. Ten governments of countries of industrial importance hold permanent seats on the Governing Body. These are: Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, UK and USA. The remaining 18 government members are elected every three years. Workers’ and employers’ representatives are elected as individuals, not as national candidates.
  • Headquarters: International Labour Office, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland.

  • Website: http://www.ilo.org

  • Email: ilo@ilo.org

  • Director-General: Guy Ryder (United Kingdom).

  • Governing Body Chairperson: Claudio Julio de la Puente Ribeyro (Peru).

Publications include:

International Labour Review (annual; in three volumes).—Bulletin of Labour Statistics (quarterly).—Official Bulletin and International Journal of Labour Research (biannual).—Yearbook of Labour Statistics (online only).—World Employment and Social Outlook (biannual).—Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety.—Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM).—International Social Security Review (quarterly).—Global Wage Report (biennial).

International Maritime Organization (IMO)

Origin

The International Maritime Organization (formerly the InterGovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization) was established as a specialized agency of the UN by a convention drafted in 1948 at a UN maritime conference in Geneva. The Convention became effective on 17 March 1958 when it had been ratified by 21 countries, including seven with at least 1m. gross tons of shipping each. The IMCO started operations in 1959 and changed its name to the IMO in 1982.

Functions

To facilitate co-operation among governments on technical matters affecting merchant shipping, especially concerning safety and security at sea; to prevent and control marine pollution caused by ships; to facilitate international maritime traffic. The IMO is responsible for convening international maritime conferences and for drafting international maritime conventions. It also provides technical assistance to countries wishing to develop their maritime activities, and acts as a depositary authority for international conventions regulating maritime affairs. The World Maritime University (WMU), at Malmö, Sweden, was established in 1983; the IMO International Maritime Law Institute (IMLI), at Valletta, Malta and the IMO International Maritime Academy, at Trieste, Italy, both in 1989.

Organization

The IMO has 174 members and three associate members. The Assembly, composed of all member states, normally meets every two years. The 40-member Council acts as governing body between sessions. There are four principal committees (on maritime safety, legal matters, marine environment protection and technical co-operation), which submit reports or recommendations to the Assembly through the Council, and a Secretariat. Total expenditure in 2017 amounted to £51,215,000.
  • Headquarters: 4 Albert Embankment, London, SE1 7SR, UK.

  • Website: http://www.imo.org

  • Email: info@imo.org

  • Secretary-General: Kitack Lim (South Korea).

Publication

IMO News (quarterly).

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Established in 1945 as an independent organization, the International Monetary Fund began financial operations on 1 March 1947. An agreement of mutual co-operation with the UN came into force on 15 Nov. 1947. The first amendment to the Articles of Agreement, creating the special drawing right (SDR), the IMF’s reserve asset, took effect on 28 July 1969. The second amendment took effect on 1 April 1978, and established a new code of conduct for exchange arrangements in the wake of the collapse of the par value system. The third amendment came into force on 11 Nov. 1992; it allowed for the suspension of voting and related rights of any member that failed to settle its outstanding obligations to the IMF. The fourth Amendment, in force from 10 Aug. 2009, provided for a special one-time allocation of SDRs. A fifth amendment, effective 18 Feb. 2011, expanded the Fund’s investment authority. The sixth amendment, which took effect on 3 March 2011, strengthened the representation of emerging economies through ad hoc quota increases. On 26 Jan. 2016 the seventh amendment, concerning quota and governance reform, was enacted.

Members

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaŵi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Macedonia, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, UK, USA, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Aims

To promote international monetary co-operation, the expansion of international trade and exchange rate stability; to assist in the removal of exchange restrictions and the establishment of a multilateral system of payments; and to alleviate any serious disequilibrium in members’ international balance of payments by making the financial resources of the IMF available to them, usually subject to economic policy conditions.

Activities

The IMF is mandated to oversee the international monetary system and monitor the economic and financial policies of its member countries. The IMF highlights possible risks to domestic and external stability and advises on policy adjustments.

Lending

A core responsibility of the IMF is to provide loans to member countries experiencing balance of payments problems. This financial assistance enables countries to rebuild their international reserves, stabilize their currencies, continue paying for imports and restore conditions for strong economic growth, while undertaking policies to correct underlying problems. Unlike development banks, the IMF does not lend for specific projects.

The IMF has various loan instruments, or ‘facilities’, that are tailored to address the specific circumstances of its diverse membership. Nonconcessional loans are provided mainly through Stand-By Arrangements (SBAs) and the Extended Fund Facility (which is useful primarily for longer-term needs). The Flexible Credit Line (FCL) was introduced in 2009, for countries with very strong fundamentals, policies and track records of policy implementation.

The IMF also offers special financing facilities for low-income countries. A new Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust, effective from Jan. 2010, incorporates: the Extended Credit Facility, which provides flexible medium-term support; the Standby Credit Facility, which addresses short-term and precautionary needs; and the Rapid Credit Facility, which offers emergency support with limited conditionality. The IMF also provides emergency assistance to support recovery from natural disasters and conflicts, in some cases at concessional interest rates.

A major reform of the IMF’s lending facilities took place in March 2009. Conditions linked to IMF loan disbursements are to be better focused and more adequately tailored to the varying strengths of countries’ policies and fundamentals. The flexibility of the SBA has been enhanced. In addition, access limits have been doubled, the cost and maturity structure of the Fund’s lending has been simplified and its lending facilities have been streamlined.

Technical assistance

The IMF provides technical assistance in its areas of core expertise: macroeconomic policy, tax policy and revenue administration, expenditure management, monetary policy, the exchange rate system, financial sector sustainability, and macroeconomic and financial statistics. About 90% of IMF technical assistance goes to low and lower-middle income countries. The IMF operates nine regional technical assistance centres: in the Pacific (Fiji), the Caribbean (Barbados), five in Africa (Gabon, Ghana, Mali, Mauritius and Tanzania), the Middle East (Lebanon) and Central America (Guatemala).

Finances

Quota subscriptions from member countries are the IMF’s main source of financing. A member’s quota is largely determined by its economic position relative to other members; it is also linked to their drawing rights on the IMF, their voting power and their share of SDR allocations. Quotas are generally reviewed at least every five years, although the 15th General Quota Review, which under normal circumstances would have been completed in Dec. 2015, has been delayed until at least 2019. The IMF can supplement its resources through borrowing if it believes that resources might fall short of members’ needs.

The General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB) and New Arrangements to Borrow (NAB) are credit arrangements between the IMF and a group of member countries and institutions to provide supplementary resources to the IMF to deal with an exceptional situation that poses a threat to the stability of that system. The GAB, established in 1962, enables the IMF to borrow specified amounts of currencies from 11 industrial countries (or their central banks) under certain circumstances, at market-related rates of interest. The potential credit available to the IMF under the GAB totals SDR 17bn., with an additional SDR 1·5bn. available under an associated arrangement with Saudi Arabia. The NAB, which came into effect in 1998, is a set of credit arrangements between the IMF and 38 member countries and institutions. Importantly, the NAB is the facility of first and principal recourse vis-à-vis the GAB. The maximum amount of resources available to the IMF under the NAB and GAB is SDR 370bn.

In April 2009 the G20 agreed to increase the lending resources available to the IMF by up to US$500bn., thereby tripling total pre-crisis lending resources. The increase was to be made through immediate bilateral financing from IMF member countries and by subsequently incorporating this financing into an expanded and more flexible NAB increased by up to US$500bn. This objective was achieved by Sept. 2009.

Bilateral loans

Under such an agreement, the member normally commits to allow the Fund to make drawings up to a specified ceiling during the period for which drawings can be made. In 2009 the IMF signed a number of bilateral loan agreements.

IMF notes

Some official creditors may prefer to invest in paper or notes issued by the IMF. In 2009 the IMF’s Executive Board approved a new framework for issuing notes to the official sector. China was the first country to have signed such a note purchase agreement.

SDR allocations

The IMF may allocate SDRs to members in proportion to their IMF quotas. Such an allocation provides each member with a costless asset. There have been three general SDR allocations, made in response to a long-term global need for reserve assets: (i) SDR 9·3bn., distributed in 1970–72; (ii) SDR 12·3bn., distributed in 1979–81; and (iii) SDR 162·1bn., distributed in Aug. 2009. A special one-off allocation of SDRs amounting to SDR 21·5bn. was implemented on 9 Sept. 2009. This allocation was for those countries that joined the Fund after 1981—more than one fifth of the IMF membership—and had never received an SDR allocation. As a result of reforms implemented in Jan. 2016, the combined quotas of the IMF’s then 188 members totalled US$659bn.

Governance reform

Implemented on 28 April 2008 this reform made quotas more responsive to economic realities by increasing the representation of fast-growing economies while at the same time giving low-income countries more say in the IMF’s decision making. The reform built on an initial step agreed by the IMF’s membership in Sept. 2006 to have ad hoc quota increases for four countries—China, South Korea, Mexico and Turkey. In Dec. 2010 the IMF Board of Governors approved a shift in quota share to dynamic emerging markets and developing countries of more than 6% using the quota formulas at the time as the basis. The reforms came into effect in Jan. 2016 as part of the IMF’s 14th General Quota Review.

Organization

The highest authority is the Board of Governors; each member government is represented. The Board of Governors has delegated many of its powers to the 24 executive directors in Washington, D.C., who are appointed or elected by individual member countries or groups of countries. The managing director is selected by the executive directors and serves as chairman of the Executive Board, but may not vote except in case of a tie. The term of office is for five years, but may be extended or terminated at the discretion of the executive directors. The managing director is responsible for the ordinary business of the IMF, under the direction of the executive directors, and supervises a staff of about 2,400. There are three deputy managing directors. As of Jan. 2019 the IMF had 189 members.

The IMF Institute is a specialized department providing training in macroeconomic analysis and policy, and related subjects, for officials of member countries. In addition to training offered in Washington, D.C., the IMF also offers training for country officials through a network of seven regional training institutes and programmes. These are: the IMF-Singapore Regional Training Institute; the Africa Training Institute (in Mauritius); the Joint Partnership for Africa (in Côte d’Ivoire); the Joint China-IMF Training Program (in Dalian, China); the IMF-Middle East Center for Economics and Finance (in Kuwait); the Joint Regional Training Center for Latin America (in Brazil); and the Joint Vienna Institute (in Austria).

Current Leaders

Christine Lagarde

Position

Managing Director

Introduction

Christine Lagarde became managing director of the IMF in July 2011 against a backdrop of global financial instability and uncertainty. The 11th consecutive European to head the Fund, she promised to give more voting power to developing nations. Her key challenges have included formulating the IMF response to sovereign debt crises and revitalizing global economic growth. Her appointment for a second term in the post was approved in Feb. 2016.

Early Life

Born on 1 Jan. 1956 in Paris, Christine Lagarde attended school in Le Havre, France and Holton-Arms School in Bethesda, Maryland, USA before studying law at the Université de Paris X-Nanterre. After obtaining a master’s degree from the Institut d’études politiques d’Aix-en-Provence, in 1981 she joined the Paris office of international law firm Baker & McKenzie, specializing in anti-trust law, employment law, and acquisitions and mergers.

Made a partner in 1987, she served on the executive committee from 1995–2004, moving to Chicago in 1999 when she became chairman of the global executive committee. As a member of a Washington-based think tank, the Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Lagarde headed the US–Poland defence industries working group from 1995–2002, promoting the interests of US and Polish companies.

She returned to France in 2005 to serve as minister for foreign trade in Dominique de Villepin’s government, overseeing the growth of exports. She was minister of agriculture and fisheries from May–June 2007, before being appointed finance minister by President Sarkozy. With the onset of the global economic crisis in 2008 she gained a reputation as an astute negotiator, winning praise domestically for her representation of French interests on the international stage. In 2010 she was closely involved in the negotiations over IMF bailout loans for eurozone countries.

IMF managing director Dominique Strauss-Kahn resigned in May 2011, accused of sexual assault, and Lagarde emerged as the favourite to replace him, ahead of Agustín Carstens of Mexico. She was backed by the USA and, despite widely expressed concern over continued European dominance of the Fund, she also won support from the BRIC nations of Brazil, Russia, India and China.

Career in Office

Lagarde took office on 5 July 2011, promising to implement reforms to IMF governance, including more voting power for emerging nations. Her main preoccupation, however, has been the containment of sovereign debt crises in economically advanced countries around the world, and particularly in the eurozone where the IMF has contributed financial support to several countries in an international effort to sustain the viability of the European single currency.

In Oct. 2013 she acknowledged that the worldwide financial turmoil had shaken faith in prosperity through globalization, but stressed the need for continued international policy collaboration in the face of ‘transitions on an epic scale’. A year later she called for resolute policies to prevent economic growth from settling into a ‘new mediocre’, with unacceptably low job creation and inclusion. She was similarly downbeat in Dec. 2015, commenting that the world faced another year of ‘disappointing and uneven’ growth. She approved the first rise that month in borrowing costs in the USA since 2006 as necessary, but warned that higher interest rates, economic slowdown in China and depressed commodity markets could undermine the already tepid and vulnerable global recovery. Earlier, in Nov. that year, she heralded the inclusion of China’s yuan in the basket of currencies that comprise the IMF’s lending reserves.

In Oct. 2017 Lagarde delivered a more optimistic global economic assessment. She said that, measured by GDP, nearly 75% of the world was experiencing an upswing, reflecting a cyclical pick-up in the advanced economies, especially in Europe and Japan, strong markets in China and India, and a brighter outlook in other emerging and developing economies. Nevertheless, she said that persistent low growth since the global financial crisis had exposed long-standing inabilities to adapt to technological change and global integration. Also, there remained threats from high levels of debt in many countries, excessive risk-taking in financial markets and corruption. In Dec. Lagarde maintained that the UK referendum decision in June 2016 to leave the European Union was already having a negative impact and that the UK’s weaker growth in 2017 was in contrast to accelerating activity in the rest of the world.

In Oct. 2018 she cautioned that global growth had not only plateaued but was also spread more unevenly among countries. Moreover, risks had begun to materialize from rising trade protection, while global public and private debt—at an all-time high—could provoke capital outflows and economic instability in emerging markets. She added that the IMF needed to press ahead with the financial regulatory agenda to address the issue of sustainability, including the existential threat of climate change

In Dec. 2015 a French judicial commission had ruled that Lagarde should stand trial for alleged negligence over a controversial decision she had made regarding the use of public money in 2008 while minister of finance in France. Although she was convicted in Dec. 2016, the court did not hand down any punishment and the IMF board said that it retained full confidence in her continued leadership.
  • Headquarters: 700 19th St., NW, Washington, D.C., 20431, USA; 1900 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, D.C., 20431, USA. European offices in Paris and Brussels and regional offices in Tokyo and Warsaw.

  • Website: http://www.imf.org

  • Email: publicaffairs@imf.org

  • Managing Director: Christine Lagarde (France).

Publications

Annual Report of the Executive Board.Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions.International Financial Statistics (monthly).—IMF Survey (online).—IMF Economic Review (quarterly).—World Economic Outlook (biannual).—Global Financial Stability Report (biannual).—Finance and Development (quarterly).—Fiscal Monitor (biannual).—More publications information may be found online at: http://www.imf.org/en/publications.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

Origin

Founded in Paris in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, the International Telecommunication Union took its present name in 1934 and became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947. Therefore, the ITU is the world’s oldest intergovernmental body.

Functions

To maintain and extend international co-operation for the improvement and rational use of telecommunications of all kinds, and promote and offer technical assistance to developing countries in the field of telecommunications; to promote the development of technical facilities and their most efficient operation to improve the efficiency of telecommunication services, increasing their usefulness and making them, so far as possible, generally available to the public; to harmonize the actions of nations in the attainment of these ends.

Organization

The supreme organ of the ITU is the Plenipotentiary Conference, which normally meets every four years. A 48-member Council, elected by the Conference, meets annually in Geneva and acts as the ITU’s governing body in the interval between Plenipotentiary Conferences. A General Secretariat manages the administrative and financial aspects of the ITU’s activities. The Secretary-General is also elected by the Conference. The ITU is made up of three sectors: Radiocommunication Sector; Telecommunication Standardization Sector; and Telecommunication Development Sector. The ITU has 193 member countries; a further 700 scientific and technical companies, public and private operators, broadcasters and other organizations are also members.
  • Headquarters: Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

  • Website: http://www.itu.int

  • Email: itumail@itu.int

  • Secretary-General: Houlin Zhao (China).

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

Origin

UNESCO’s Constitution was signed in London on 16 Nov. 1945 by 37 countries and the Organization came into being in Nov. 1946 on the premise that: ‘Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed’. In Jan. 2019 UNESCO had 195 members including the UK, which rejoined in 1997 having left in 1985, and the USA, which rejoined in 2003 having left in 1984. There are also 11 associate members that are not members of the UN (Anguilla, Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaçao, Faroe Islands, Macao, Montserrat, New Caledonia, Sint Maarten and Tokelau).

Aims and Activities

UNESCO’s primary objective is to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science, communication, culture and the social and human sciences in order to further universal respect for justice, democracy, the rule of the law, human rights and fundamental freedoms, affirmed for all peoples by the UN Charter. Africa and gender equality are the Organization’s two chief global priorities.

Education

Various activities support and foster national projects to renovate education systems and develop alternative educational strategies towards a goal of lifelong education for all. The World Development Forum in Dakar in 2000 set an agenda for progress towards this aim expressed as six goals. Two of these, attaining universal primary education by 2015 and gender parity in schooling by 2005, were also UN Millennium Development Goals. Three elements define the context for pursuing this purpose: promoting education as a fundamental right, improving the quality of education and stimulating experimentation, innovation and policy dialogue.

Science

UNESCO seeks to promote international scientific co-operation and encourages scientific research designed to improve living conditions and to protect ecosystems. Several international programmes to better understand the Earth’s resources towards the advancement of sustainable development have been initiated, including the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) programme, the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP).

Culture

Promoting the preservation of heritage, both tangible and intangible, cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue is the principal priority of UNESCO’s cultural programmes. UNESCO’s World Heritage List, now covering 1,092 sites around the world, promotes the preservation of monuments, cultural landscapes and natural sites.

Communication

Activities are geared to promoting the free flow of information, freedom of expression, press freedom, media independence and pluralism. Another priority is to promote multilingualism on the internet, bridge the digital divide and help disadvantaged groups participate in the knowledge societies created through the information and communication technologies. To this end, UNESCO promotes access to public domain information, as well as encouraging the creation of local content.

Social and Human Sciences

UNESCO works to advance knowledge and intellectual co-operation in order to facilitate social transformations conducive to justice, freedom, peace and human dignity. It seeks to identify evolving social trends and develops and promotes principles and standards based on universal values and ethics, such as the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights (1997) and the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data (2003).

Organization

The General Conference, composed of representatives from each member state, meets biennially to decide policy, programme and budget. A 58-member Executive Board elected by the Conference meets twice a year and there is a Secretariat. The approved budget for the biennium 2016–17 was US$667m., with significant extra-budgetary contributions for specific programmes provided by both public and private bodies.

There are also ten separate UNESCO institutes and centres: the International Bureau of Education (IBE), in Geneva; the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL), in Hamburg; the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP), in Paris and Buenos Aires; the International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa (IICBA), in Addis Ababa; the International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (IESALC), in Caracas; the Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE), in Moscow; the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), in Montreal; the UNESCO International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC), in Bonn; the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education (UNESCO-IHE), in Delft; and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), in Trieste.
  • Headquarters: UNESCO House, 7 place Fontenoy, 75007 Paris, France; 1 rue Miollis, 75015 Paris, France.

  • Website: http://www.unesco.org

  • Director-General: Audrey Azoulay (France).

Periodicals (published quarterly)

Museum International; International Social Science Journal; The UNESCO Courier; Prospects; World Heritage Review.

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

Origin

UNIDO was established by the UN General Assembly in 1966 and became a UN specialized agency in 1985.

Aims and Activities

UNIDO helps developing countries in the formulation of policies and programmes in the field of industrial development; analyses trends, disseminates information and co-ordinates activities in their industrial development; acts as a forum for consultations and negotiations directed towards the industrialization of developing countries; and provides technical co-operation to developing countries for the implementation of their development plans for sustainable industrialization in their public and private sectors.

UNIDO focuses its efforts on three thematic priority areas: poverty reduction through productive activities; trade capacity-building; and energy and the environment. Activities under the thematic priorities are reflected in UNIDO’s medium-term programme frameworks and biennial programme documents.

Organization

As part of the United Nations common system, UNIDO has the responsibility for promoting industrialization throughout the developing world, in co-operation with its 168 member states. Its headquarters are in Vienna, Austria. UNIDO maintains a field network of 47 regional and country offices around the world. UNIDO maintains offices in Brussels, Geneva and New York.

The General Conference meets every two years to determine policy and approve the budget. The 53-member Industrial Development Board (membership according to constitutional lists) is elected by the General Conference. The General Conference also elects a 27-member Programme and Budget Committee for two years and appoints a Director-General for four years.

Finance

UNIDO’s financial resources come from the regular and operational budgets, as well as voluntary contributions. The regular and operational budget for 2017 amounted to €86·2m. More than half of UNIDO’s funding comes from voluntary contributions. The regular budget derives mainly from assessed contributions from member states with a marginal proportion provided from such other sources as interest income, sales publications and government contributions to the UNIDO field offices.

The Constitution of UNIDO provides for 6% of the net regular budget to be used for the Regular Programme of Technical Cooperation. These resources are primarily used for supporting the Organization’s operational and normative activities. The operational budget derives mainly from support cost income (of 5–13%) earned from the implementation of technical co-operation activities. Technical co-operation is funded mainly from voluntary contributions from donor countries and institutions as well as UNDP, the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Global Environment Facility and the Common Fund for Communities.
  • Headquarters: Vienna International Centre, Wagramerstr. 5, POB 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.

  • Website: http://www.unido.org

  • Director-General: Li Yong (China).

Publications

UNIDO Annual Report.—Making It (quarterly).—UNIDO Times (newsletter).—The International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics 2015.—Industrial Development Report 2016.—Introduction to Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development. 2015.

Universal Postal Union (UPU)

Origin

The UPU was established in 1875, when the Universal Postal Convention adopted by the Postal Congress of Berne on 9 Oct. 1874 came into force. It has 192 member countries.

Functions

The UPU provides co-operation between postal services and helps to ensure a universal network of up-to-date products and services. To this end, UPU members are united in a single postal territory for the reciprocal exchange of correspondence. A Specialized Agency of the UN since 1948, the UPU is governed by its Constitution, adopted in 1964 (Vienna), and subsequent protocol amendments (1969, Tokyo; 1974, Lausanne; 1984, Hamburg; 1989, Washington; 1994, Seoul; 1999, Beijing; 2004, Bucharest; 2008, Geneva).

Organization

It is composed of a Universal Postal Congress which meets every four years; a 41-member Council of Administration, which meets annually and is responsible for supervising the affairs of the UPU between Congresses; a 40-member Postal Operations Council; and an International Bureau which functions as the permanent Secretariat, responsible for strategic planning and programme budgeting. A new UPU body, the Consultative Committee, was created at the Bucharest Congress. This committee represents the external shareholders of the postal sector as well as UPU member countries. The budget for annual expenditure in 2019 was 65·5m. Swiss francs.
  • Headquarters: Weltpoststrasse 4, 3015 Berne, Switzerland.

  • Website: http://www.upu.int

  • Director-General: Bishar Abdirahman Hussein (Kenya).

Publications

Annual Report; ICTs, new services and transformation of the Post. 2010.—Postal Economics in Developing Countries: Posts, Infrastructure of the 21st Century? 2008.—Postal Statistics (annual).—Union Postale (quarterly); Universal POST*CODE® DataBase (online only); Bucharest World Postal Strategy. 2004.

World Health Organization (WHO)

Origin

An International Conference convened by the UN Economic and Social Council to consider a single health organization resulted in the adoption on 22 July 1946 of the Constitution of the World Health Organization, which came into force on 7 April 1948.

Functions

WHO’s objective, as stated in the first article of the Constitution, is ‘the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health’. As the directing and co-ordinating authority on international health, it establishes and maintains collaboration with the UN, specialized agencies, governments, health administrations, professional and other groups concerned with health. The Constitution also directs WHO to assist governments to strengthen their health services; to stimulate and advance work to eradicate diseases; to promote maternal and child health, mental health, medical research and the prevention of accidents; to improve standards of teaching and training in the health professions, and of nutrition, housing, sanitation, working conditions and other aspects of environmental health. The Organization is also empowered to propose conventions, agreements and regulations, and make recommendations about international health matters; to develop, establish and promote international standards concerning foods, biological, pharmaceutical and similar substances; to revise the international nomenclature of diseases, causes of death and public health practices.

Methods of work

Co-operation in country projects is undertaken only on the request of the government concerned, through the six regional offices of the Organization. Worldwide technical services are made available by headquarters. Expert committees, chosen from the 47 advisory panels of experts, meet to advise the Director-General on a given subject. Scientific groups and consultative meetings are called for similar purposes. To further the education of health personnel of all categories, seminars, technical conferences and training courses are organized, and advisors, consultants and lecturers are provided. WHO awards fellowships for study to nationals of member countries.

Activities

The main thrust of WHO’s activities in recent years has been towards promoting national, regional and global strategies for the attainment of the main social target of the member states: ‘Health for All in the 21st Century’, or the attainment by all citizens of the world of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life. Almost all countries indicated a high level of political commitment to this goal; and guiding principles for formulating corresponding strategies and plans of action were subsequently prepared.

WHO has organized its responsibilities into four priorities: enhancing global health security, which includes preventing, detecting and containing disease outbreaks, preparing the world for controlling pandemic influenza, combating new diseases such as SARS, preparing for emergencies and responding quickly to minimize death and suffering; accelerating progress on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by reducing maternal and child mortality, tackling the global epidemics of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, promoting safe drinking water and sanitation, promoting gender equality and increasing access to essential medicines; responding to non-communicable disease such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancers by reducing smoking, promoting a healthy diet and physical activity and reducing violence and road traffic crashes; promoting equity in health through strengthening health systems to reach everyone, particularly the most vulnerable people.

World Health Day is observed on 7 April every year. The 2019 theme for World Health Day was ‘Universal health coverage: everyone, everywhere’. World No Tobacco Day is held on 31 May each year; International Day Against Drug Abuse on 26 June; World AIDS Day on 1 Dec.

The number of cancer cases is expected to increase by 37% between 2007 and 2030. The incidence of lung cancers in women and prostate cancers in men in the Western world is becoming far more prevalent. The incidence of other cancers is also rising rapidly, especially in developing countries. Heart disease and stroke, the leading causes of death in richer nations, will become more common in poorer countries. The number of people affected by diabetes has risen from 171m. in 2000 to 387m. in 2014, and has been forecast by the International Diabetes Federation to increase to 592m. by 2030. There is likely to be a huge rise in some mental and neurological disorders, especially dementias and particularly Alzheimer’s disease, which is projected to affect 34m. people by 2025. In 2013 an estimated 650m. people suffered from mental and neurological disorders. Dementia affected an estimated 36m. people in 2012 and some 50m. worldwide suffered from epilepsy.

These projected increases are reported to be owing to a combination of factors, not least population ageing and the rising prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles. Average life expectancy at birth globally was 71 years in 2014. It is around 50 years in a few low-income countries, well over 70 years in many countries and exceeds 80 years in some. In 2014 there were an estimated 589m. people over 65. By 2030 that number is expected to rise to 995m., representing nearly 12% of the world’s population.

According to WHO, the top ten causes of death in the world in 2016 were: coronary (ischaemic) heart disease, 9·4m. deaths; stroke, 5·8m.; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 3·0m.; lower respiratory infections, 3·0m.; Alzheimer disease and other dementias, 2·0m.; trachea, bronchus and lung cancers, 1·7m.; diabetes mellitus, 1·6m.; road injury, 1·4m.; diarrhoeal diseases, 1·4m.; tuberculosis, 1·3m. Tobacco kills nearly 6m. people each year. In total, its use is responsible for the death of almost one in ten adults worldwide.

In response, WHO has called for an intensified and sustained global campaign to encourage healthy lifestyles and attack the main risk factors responsible for many of these diseases: unhealthy diet, inadequate physical activity, smoking and obesity.

The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) was developed in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic, and is the first global health treaty negotiated under the auspices of the World Health Organization. The provisions in the Treaty require countries to ban tobacco advertising, sponsorship and promotion; establish new packaging and labelling of tobacco products with prominent health warnings; establish smoking bans in public places, increase price and tax on tobacco products; and strengthen legislation to clamp down on tobacco smuggling, among other measures.

Good progress has been made towards several MDGs. The number of children globally who died before their fifth birthday fell from 12·7m. in 1990 to 6·3m. in 2013. Women dying as a result of pregnancy or childbirth declined from 532,000 in 1990 to 303,000 in 2015. Instances of underweight children aged five or under in the developing world fell from 28% in 1990 to 17% in 2013. Around the world, new HIV infections declined by 38% between 2001 and 2013 while those dying from the disease fell by 43% between 2003 and 2015. Malaria deaths fell by 48% between 2000 and 2015.

World Health Statistics 2016: Monitoring health for the Sustainable Development Goals compiles data from worldwide sources on health-related issues including access to health, life expectancy and death from main diseases. The report puts these results in perspective and promotes healthier lifestyles in accordance with the WHO Sustainable Development Goals agenda. Primarily it strives for universal health coverage and for health equality among and within countries by 2030.

Organization

The principal organs of WHO are the World Health Assembly, the Executive Board and the Secretariat. Each of the 194 member states has the right to be represented at the Assembly, which meets annually in Geneva. The 34-member Executive Board is composed of technically qualified health experts designated by as many member states as elected by the Assembly. The Secretariat consists of technical and administrative staff headed by a Director-General, who is appointed for not more than two five-year terms. Health activities in member countries are carried out through regional organizations which have been established in Africa (Brazzaville), South-East Asia (New Delhi), Europe (Copenhagen), Eastern Mediterranean (Cairo) and Western Pacific (Manila). The Pan American Sanitary Bureau in Washington serves as the regional office of WHO for the Americas. It is the oldest international health agency in the world and is the Secretariat of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).

Finance

The proposed programme budget for 2018–19 amounted to US$4·4bn.

Current Leaders

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus

Position

Director-General

Introduction

Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus was elected director-general of the WHO for a five-year term in May 2017. The first African to lead the United Nations agency, he is a specialist in malaria control and Ethiopia’s former minister of health.

Early Life

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus was born in the city of Asmara, Ethiopia, on 23 Nov. 1965. Graduating in biology from the University of Asmara in 1986, he went on to work for the local health authority. He undertook further study in the UK, initially at University of London’s School of Tropical Medicine and then at the University of Nottingham, where in 2000 he was awarded a doctorate on malaria transmission and control in Ethiopia.

The following year he was appointed head of Tigre’s regional health bureau and oversaw a modernization programme. He became a state minister for health in 2003 and in 2005 he was promoted to national health minister by then prime minister, Meles Zenawi. He led ambitious reforms to the country’s health system—notably by creating more than 3,500 medical centres. Links were forged with international health organizations and foundations and he served on the boards of several initiatives including, from 2009–11, the Global Fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.

In 2012 Tedros was appointed Ethiopia’s minister for foreign affairs amid a reshuffle organized by the new prime minister, Hailemariam Desalegn. He went on to lead the negotiations of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, in which 193 countries committed financing to achieve the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. He also served as chair of the executive council of the African Union (AU) in 2014. In May 2016 Tedros announced he would be standing for the post of director-general of the WHO, with backing from the AU. He was elected with more than two-thirds of the vote on 23 May 2017.

Career in Office

After taking office on 1 July 2017 Tedros said that universal healthcare would be central to his leadership. He added that other WHO priorities included the health impacts of climate and environmental change. He courted controversy early in his tenure as he was forced to rescind his choice in Oct. that year of former President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe as a WHO goodwill ambassador in response to widespread condemnation.

In Oct. 2019 Tedros convened a meeting of the WHO Emergency Committee in response to a new outbreak of the Ebola virus in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It was decided not to declare a public health crisis at that time, although the Committee remained deeply concerned and emphasized that response activities needed to be intensified and that ongoing vigilance was critical.
  • Headquarters: 20 avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.

  • Website: http://www.who.int

  • Director-General: Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus (Ethiopia).

Publications

World Health Report (annual).—World Health Statistics (annual).—Bulletin of the World Health Organization (monthly).—WHO Technical Report Series (annual).—Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. 2014.—Global update on the health sector response to HIV, 2014. 2014.—Consolidated strategic information guidelines for HIV in the health sector. 2015.—International Health Regulations. 2005.—WHO Drug Information (quarterly).—Weekly Epidemiological Record.International travel and health.—The International Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Int.).

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

Origin

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) was established in 1967 following the conclusion of the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization in Stockholm. It was given a mandate by its member states to promote the protection of intellectual property (IP) through co-operation among states and in collaboration with other international organizations. The WIPO Convention entered into force on 26 April 1970 and WIPO became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1974.

Aims and Activities

WIPO administers 26 treaties that deal with different legal and administrative aspects of intellectual property, notably the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, the Patent Cooperation Treaty and the Bern Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. WIPO is dedicated to developing a balanced and accessible international intellectual property (IP) system that rewards creativity, stimulates innovation and contributes to economic development while safeguarding the public interest.

In Dec. 2008 WIPO member states adopted a new strategic framework for the Organization comprising nine strategic goals that are designed to enable WIPO to more effectively respond to an evolving technological, cultural and geo-economic environment. In addition to goals relating to the balanced evolution of the international normative framework of IP, to facilitating the use of IP for development and to the provision of premier global IP services, WIPO’s new goals include a focus on building respect for IP; on developing global IP infrastructure; on responsive communication; on becoming a world reference source for IP information; and on addressing IP in relation to global policy challenges such as climate change, public health and food security.

WIPO’s activities fall broadly into three clusters of activities, namely: the progressive development of international IP law; IP capacity-building programmes to support the efficient use of IP, particularly in developing countries; and services to industry that facilitate the process of obtaining IP rights in multiple countries. Also, alternative dispute resolution options for private parties are available through the WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center.

Organization

As at Jan. 2019 WIPO had 191 member states. WIPO is unique among the family of UN organizations in that it is largely self-financing. The budget for the 2016–17 biennium was 707·0m. Swiss francs. Over 90% of the Organization’s budget comes from earnings derived from the services that WIPO provides to industry and the private sector. The remainder of the budget is made up mainly of revenue generated by WIPO’s Arbitration and Mediation Center, the sale of publications and contributions from member states.
  • Official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

  • Headquarters: 34 chemin des Colombettes, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.

  • Website: http://www.wipo.int

  • Director-General: Francis Gurry (Australia).

Periodicals

PCT Gazette (weekly).—PCT Newsletter (monthly).—International Designs Bulletin (weekly).—WIPO Gazette of International Marks (weekly).—WIPO Magazine (6 a year).

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

Origin

A 1947 (Washington) Conference of Directors of the International Meteorological Organization (est. 1873) adopted a Convention creating the World Meteorological Organization. The WMO Convention became effective on 23 March 1950 and WMO was formally established. It was recognized as a Specialized Agency of the UN in 1951.

Functions

(1) To facilitate worldwide co-operation in the establishment of networks of stations for the making of meteorological observations as well as hydrological and other geophysical observations related to meteorology, and to promote the establishment and maintenance of centres charged with the provision of meteorological and related services; (2) to promote the establishment and maintenance of systems for the rapid exchange of meteorological and related information; (3) to promote standardization of meteorological and related observations and ensure the uniform publication of observations and statistics; (4) to further the application of meteorology to aviation, shipping, water problems, agriculture and other human activities; (5) to promote activities in operational hydrology and to further close co-operation between meteorological and hydrological services; and (6) to encourage research and training in meteorology and, as appropriate, to assist in co-ordinating the international aspects of such research and training.

Organization

WMO has 185 member states and six member territories responsible for the operation of their own meteorological services. Congress, which is its supreme body, meets every four years to approve policy, programme and budget, and adopt regulations. The Executive Council meets at least once a year to prepare studies and recommendations for Congress, and supervises the implementation of Congress resolutions and regulations. It has 37 members, comprising the President and three Vice-Presidents, as well as the Presidents of the six Regional Associations (Africa, Asia, South America, North America, Central America and the Caribbean, South-West Pacific, Europe), whose task is to co-ordinate meteorological activity within their regions, and 27 members elected in their personal capacity. There are eight Technical Commissions composed of experts nominated by members of WMO, whose remit includes the following areas: basic systems, climatology, instruments and methods of observation, atmospheric sciences, aeronautical meteorology, agricultural meteorology, hydrology, oceanography and marine meteorology. A permanent Secretariat is maintained in Geneva. There are four regional offices for Africa, Asia and the South-West Pacific, the Americas and Europe. The expected regular budget for 2017 was 65·2m.
  • Headquarters: 7 bis, avenue de la Paix, Case Postale 2300, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland.

  • Website: https://public.wmo.int/en

  • Email: wmo@wmo.int

  • Secretary-General: Petteri Taalas (Finland).

Publications

WMO Bulletin (biannual).—MeteoWorld (quarterly).

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

Origin

Established in 1925 in The Hague as the International Congress of Official Tourist Traffic Associations. Renamed the International Union for Official Tourism Organizations after the Second World War when it moved to Geneva, it was renamed the World Tourism Organization in 1975 and moved its headquarters to Madrid the following year.

The World Tourism Organization became an executing agency of the United Nations Development Programme in 1976 and in 1977 a formal co-operation agreement was signed with the UN itself. With a UN resolution on 23 Dec. 2003 the World Tourism Organization became a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Aims

The World Tourism Organization exists to help nations throughout the world maximize the positive impacts of tourism, such as job creation, new infrastructure and foreign exchange earnings, while at the same time minimizing negative environmental or social impacts.

Membership

The World Tourism Organization has three categories of membership: full membership which is open to all sovereign states; associate membership which is open to all territories not responsible for their external relations; and affiliate membership which comprises a wide range of organizations and companies working either directly in travel and tourism or in related sectors. In Jan. 2019 the World Tourism Organization had 158 full members, six associate members and more than 500 affiliate members.

Organization

The General Assembly meets every two years to approve the budget and programme of work and to debate topics of vital importance to the tourism sector. The Executive Council is the governing board, responsible for ensuring that the organization carries out its work and keeps within its budget. The World Tourism Organization has six regional commissions—Africa, the Americas, East Asia and the Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and South Asia—which meet at least once a year. Specialized committees of World Tourism Organization members advise on management and programme content.
  • Headquarters: Poeta Joan Maragall 42, 28020 Madrid, Spain.

  • Website: http://www.unwto.org

  • Email: comm@unwto.org

  • Secretary-General: Zurab Pololikashvili (Georgia).

Publications

UNWTO Annual Report.Yearbook of Tourism Statistics (annual).—UNWTO Tourism Highlights (annual).—Compendium of Tourism Statistics (annual).—Travel and Tourism Barometer (6 a year).—UNWTO News (monthly).

Other Organs Related to the UN

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Origin

An intergovernmental agency, the IAEA was established in 1957 under the aegis of the UN and reports annually to the General Assembly. Its Statute was approved on 26 Oct. 1956 at a conference at UN Headquarters.

Functions

To enhance the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world; and to ensure that Agency assistance and activities are not used for any military purpose. In addition, under the terms of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), non-nuclear-weapon states are required to allow the IAEA to verify that their nuclear activities are peaceful. Similar responsibilities are given to the IAEA as part of the nuclear-weapon-free zone treaties in Latin America, the South Pacific, Africa and Southeast Asia.

Activities

The IAEA gives advice and technical assistance to developing countries on a wide range of aspects of nuclear power development. In addition, it promotes the use of radiation and isotopes in agriculture, industry, medicine and hydrology through expert services, training courses and fellowships, grants of equipment and supplies, research contracts, scientific meetings and publications. In 2015 support for operational projects for technical co-operation involved 3,477 expert and lecturer assignments, 5,126 meeting participants, 2,722 participants in training courses and 1,852 fellows and scientific visitors.

The IAEA uses technical measures (‘safeguards’) to verify that nuclear equipment or materials are used exclusively for peaceful purposes. IAEA safeguards were applied in 2015 in 181 States, with 2,114 inspections conducted. The five nuclear-weapon states recognized by the NPT (China, France, Russia, UK and USA) are not required to accept safeguards but have concluded Voluntary Offer Agreements that permit the IAEA access to some of their civil nuclear activities.

Organization

The Statute provides for an annual General Conference, a 35-member Board of Governors and a Secretariat headed by a Director-General and currently staffed by nearly 2,500 people from over 100 countries. The IAEA had 170 member states in Jan. 2019.

There are also research laboratories in Austria and Monaco. In addition, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics was established in Trieste, Italy, in 1964, and is operated jointly by UNESCO and the IAEA.
  • Headquarters: Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.

  • Website: http://www.iaea.org

  • Director General: Yukiya Amano (Japan).

Publications

AEA Annual Report.—IAEA Bulletin (quarterly).—INIS Reference Series.Nuclear Fusion (monthly).—Nuclear Safety Review (annual).—IAEA International Law Series.—International Nuclear Information System (INIS).Technical Reports Series. For a full list of IAEA publications, visit the website: http://www.iaea.org/Publications/index.html

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Origin

The WTO came into being on 1 Jan. 1995. The bulk of the WTO’s current work comes from the 1986–94 negotiations called the Uruguay Round and earlier negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was created in 1948.

Aims and Activities

The WTO agreements have been negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and provide the legal ground rules for international commerce. They act as contracts, binding governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business, while allowing governments to meet social and environmental objectives. The system’s overriding purpose is to help trade flow as freely as possible.

The WTO agreements cover goods, services and intellectual property. They spell out the principles of liberalization and the permitted exceptions. They include individual countries’ commitments to lower customs tariffs and other trade barriers, and to open and keep open services markets. They set procedures for settling disputes. The agreements are not static; they are renegotiated from time to time and new agreements can be added to the package. The WTO began new negotiations under the ‘Doha Development Agenda’ launched in Nov. 2001. In Dec. 2013 all 159 member countries agreed to the ‘Bali package’, an agreement to facilitate cross-border trade. It was the first comprehensive agreement between all members in the organization’s history and analysts estimated that it could add up to US$1trn. to the global economy.

Governments are required to make their trade policies transparent by notifying the WTO about laws in force and measures adopted. Various WTO councils and committees seek to ensure that these requirements are being followed and that WTO agreements are being properly implemented. All WTO members must undergo periodic scrutiny of their trade policies and practices, each review containing reports by the country concerned and the WTO Secretariat.

The Dispute Settlement Understanding written into the WTO agreements provides a neutral procedure based on an agreed legal foundation when conflicts of interest arise between trading nations. Countries bring disputes to the WTO if they think their rights under the agreements are being infringed. Judgments by specially appointed independent experts are based on interpretations of the agreements and individual countries’ commitments.

Special provision is provided for developing countries, including longer time periods to implement agreements and commitments, measures to increase their trading opportunities and support to help them build their trade capacity, to handle disputes and to implement technical standards. The WTO organizes hundreds of technical co-operation missions to developing countries annually. It also holds numerous courses each year in Geneva for government officials. Aid for Trade aims to help developing countries improve the skills and infrastructure needed to expand their trade.

The WTO maintains regular dialogue with non-governmental organizations, parliamentarians, other international organizations, the media and the general public on various aspects of the WTO and the ongoing Doha negotiations, with the aim of enhancing co-operation and increasing awareness of WTO activities.

Organization

As of Jan. 2019 the WTO had 164 members, accounting for around 95% of world trade. The WTO is run by its member governments and derives its income from annual contributions from its members. All major decisions are made by the membership as a whole, either by ministers (who usually meet at least once every two years) or by their ambassadors or delegates (who meet regularly in Geneva). Day-to-day work in between the ministerial conferences is handled by three bodies: the General Council, the Dispute Settlement Body and the Trade Policy Review Body. All three consist of all the WTO members. The previous GATT Secretariat now serves the WTO, which has no resources of its own other than its operating budget. The budget for 2018 was 197,203,900 Swiss francs.
  • Headquarters: Centre William Rappard, 154 rue de Lausanne, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland.

  • Website: http://www.wto.org

  • Email: enquiries@wto.org

  • Director-General: Roberto Azevêdo (Brazil).

Publications include

Annual Report.World Trade Report (annual).—International Trade Statistics (annual).—Trade Policy Reviews.

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO Preparatory Commission) is an international organization established by the States Signatories to the Treaty on 19 Nov. 1996. It carries out the necessary preparations for the effective implementation of the Treaty, and prepares for the first session of the Conference of the States Parties to the Treaty.

The Preparatory Commission consists of a plenary body composed of all the States Signatories, and the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS). Upon signing the Treaty a state becomes a member of the Commission. Member states oversee the work of the Preparatory Commission and fund its activities. The Commission’s main task is the establishment of the 337 facility International Monitoring System and the International Data Centre, its provisional operation and the development of operational manuals. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty prohibits any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion anywhere in the world. As of Jan. 2019 the Treaty had 184 States Signatories and 167 ratifications.

See also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) on page 77.
  • Headquarters: Vienna International Centre, PO Box 1200, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.

  • Website: http://www.ctbto.org

  • Email: info@ctbto.org

  • Executive Secretary: Lassina Zerbo (Burkina Faso).

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

The OPCW is responsible for the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which became effective on 29 April 1997. The principal organ of the OPCW is the Conference of the States Parties, composed of all the members of the Organization.

Given the relative simplicity of producing chemical warfare agents, the verification provisions of the CWC are far-reaching. The routine monitoring regime involves submission by States Parties of initial and annual declarations to the OPCW and initial visits and systematic inspections of declared weapons storage, production and destruction facilities. Verification is also applied to chemical industry facilities which produce, process or consume dual-use chemicals listed in the convention.

The OPCW also co-ordinates assistance to any State Party that falls victim of chemical warfare as it fosters international co-operation in the peaceful application of chemistry.

By Jan. 2019 a total of 193 countries and territories were States Parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention.
  • Headquarters: Johan de Wittlaan 32, 2517 JR The Hague, Netherlands.

  • Website: http://www.opcw.org

  • Director General: Ahmet Üzümcü (Turkey).

UN Conventions

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted on 13 Dec. 2006 and came into force on 3 May 2008. With 82 signatories to the Convention and 44 signatories to the Optional Protocol, it holds the record for the highest number of signatories to a UN convention on its opening day. As of Jan. 2019 it had 161 signatories.

The Convention recognizes the human rights of disabled people who have physical, mental and/or sensory long-term impairments that may affect their full participation in society. Article 1 lays out the convention’s aim ‘to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity’. Member states are obliged to ensure the equality and non-discrimination, health, education and employment of disabled people. Every four years, each member state must submit a report on relevant measures taken. A committee of 18 independent experts monitors the implementation of the convention and normally meets in Geneva, Switzerland twice a year.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) was adopted in Paris in 1994 and came into force in Dec. 1996. Its 197 signatory parties (196 states and the EU) meet every other year and work to combat the effects of desertification, drought and land degradation. Specific attention is paid to Africa, where desertification is most prevalent. The ten-year strategy covering 2008–18 focuses on improving living conditions of affected parties, improving the condition of affected ecosystems and mobilizing resources to build relationships between national and international participants.

The UNCCD encourages co-operation between nations and with international non-governmental organizations. The body also works closely with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In March 2014 Canada became the first member state to withdraw from the convention, having announced its intention to do so a year earlier with then Prime Minister Stephen Harper claiming that it had become too bureaucratic. He maintained that less than a fifth of the money that Canada gave to the organization went on programming.
  • Headquarters: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, UN Campus, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany.

  • Website: http://www.unccd.int

  • Email: secretariat@unccd.int

  • Executive Secretary: Monique Barbut (France).

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The Convention was produced at the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development with the stated aim of reducing global greenhouse gas emissions to ‘a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human induced) interference with the climate system’. Signatories agreed to take account of climate change in their domestic policy and to develop national programmes that would slow its progress. However, no mandatory targets were established for the reduction of emissions so the treaty remained legally non-binding. Instead it operates as a ‘framework’ document, with provisions for regular updates and amendments. By Jan. 2019, 196 states and territories plus the European Union had signed and ratified the Convention.

The first of these additions was the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. Under the protocol, 37 developed countries were committed to reducing their collective emissions of six greenhouse gases to at least 5% below 1990 levels. These targets were scheduled to be met in the period 2008–12. By 2012 results were mixed. The EU had reduced emissions by 21∙0% and Russia by 50∙3%, while the USA’s had risen by 2∙7%, Canada’s by 42∙2%, New Zealand’s by 111∙4% and Turkey’s by 163∙3%. In Dec. 2011 Canada announced it would be the first signatory to formally withdraw from the agreement. A second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol began on 1 Jan. 2013. The USA has not ratified the protocol. China and India, also amongst the world’s top five producers of emissions, are exempt from the protocol’s constraints by virtue of their status as developing countries.

The members of the UNFCCC meet on an annual basis. The conference in Indonesia in 2007 led to the creation of the ‘Bali Roadmap’, which timetables negotiations for a protocol to succeed Kyoto, a process continued at the 2008 conference in Poland. The subsequent Copenhagen Accord of 2009 was not legally binding and failed to set out concrete measures for tackling climate change. The 2011 conference, held in Durban, South Africa, advanced negotiations on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, the Bali Action Plan and the Cancún Agreements. At the 18th conference in Doha, Qatar in 2012 plans were laid for the development of a successor protocol by 2015 to be implemented by 2020. The 2014 conference, in Lima, Peru, saw a framework agreement approved by 194 nations for setting national pledges for submission at the conference in Paris, France in 2015. The Paris conference duly concluded a global agreement on countering climate change, although no country-specific goals were set. Follow-up conferences were hosted in Marrakesh, Morocco, in Nov. 2016, Bonn, Germany, in Nov. 2017 and Katowice, Poland, in Dec. 2018. A further conference was scheduled to take place in Chile in Nov. 2019. However, in June 2017 President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the USA from the agreement.
  • Headquarters: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UN Campus, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany.

  • Website: http://unfccc.int

  • Executive Secretary: Patricia Espinosa (Mexico).

Further Reading

United Nations (UN)

  1. Baehr, Peter R. and Gordenker, Leon, The United Nations: Reality and Ideal. 2005Google Scholar
  2. Binder, Martin, The United Nations and the Politics of Selective Humanitarian Intervention. 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Preventing Deadly Conflict: Final Report with Executive Summary. 1997Google Scholar
  4. Cavalcante, Fernando, Peacebuilding in the United Nations. 2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cortright, D. and Lopez, G. A., The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s. 2000Google Scholar
  6. Fraser, Trudy, Maintaining Peace and Security?: The United Nations in a Changing World. 2014Google Scholar
  7. Gareis, S. B., The United Nations: An Introduction. 2nd ed. 2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoopes, T. and Brinkley, D., FDR and the Creation of the UN. 1998Google Scholar
  9. Karlsrud, John, The UN at War: Peace Operations in a New Era. 2017Google Scholar
  10. Kennedy, Paul, The Parliament of Man: The Past, Present, and Future of the United Nations. 2006Google Scholar
  11. Knight, W. Andy, Adapting the United Nations to a Postmodern Era. 2nd ed. 2005Google Scholar
  12. Meisler, S., United Nations: The First Fifty Years. 1998Google Scholar
  13. New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, United Nations Handbook 2018–19. 2018Google Scholar
  14. Price, Richard and Zacher, Mark W., United Nations and Global Security. 2004Google Scholar
  15. Tannam, Etain, International Intervention in Ethnic Conflict: A Comparison of the European Union and the United Nations. 2014Google Scholar

Specialized Agencies of the UN

  1. Phillips, David A., Reforming the World Bank: Twenty Years of Trial – and Error. 2011Google Scholar
  2. Steil, Benn, The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order. 2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Stone, D. L. and Wright, C., The World Bank and Governance. 2006Google Scholar
  4. The World Bank, A Guide to the World Bank. 3rd ed. 2011Google Scholar
  5. Woods, N., The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank and Their Borrowers. 2007Google Scholar
  6. Xu, Yi-Chong and Weller, Patrick, Inside the World Bank: Exploding the Myth of the Monolithic Bank. 2009Google Scholar

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

  1. Ahamed, Liaquat, Money and Tough Love: On Tour with the IMF. 2014Google Scholar
  2. Copelovitch, Mark S., The International Monetary Fund in the Global Economy: Banks, Bonds, and Bailouts. 2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dhingra, Vasudha, The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank: Aspects of Convergence and Divergence. 2010Google Scholar
  4. Samans, Richard, Uzan, Marc and Lopez-Claros, Augusto, The International Monetary System, the IMF, and the G-20: A Great Transformation in the Making? 2007Google Scholar
  5. Steil, Benn, The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order. 2013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Woods, N., The Globalizers: The IMF, the World Bank and Their Borrowers. 2007Google Scholar

Other Organs Related to the UN

  1. Bohne, Eberhard, The World Trade Organization: Institutional Development and Reform. 2010Google Scholar
  2. Fulton, Richard and Buterbaugh, Kevin, The WTO Primer: Tracing Trade’s Visible Hand through Case Studies. 2008Google Scholar
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