Encyclopedia of Teacher Education

Living Edition
| Editors: Michael A. Peters

Contemporary Methodological Approaches of Teacher Education Balanced Against the Perspective of the Design and Innovation

  • José PenalvaEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1179-6_371-1


Educational research is emphasizing the role of innovation in teacher education. To increase innovation, the first step – scientifically and methodologically speaking – should be to investigate not just teachers (teachers’ assumptions and beliefs when interacting) but researchers when they are to investigate teachers. Contemporary research perspectives on this matter work under a clear-cut paradigm, looking for teacher’s practical assumptions and tacit knowledge; ruled by this paradigm, we find three methodological perspectives: (1) naturalistic, (2) descriptive, and (3) non-methodological solution (Penalva 2019). This paper analyzes main methodological assumptions and shortcomings underlying these prevalent perspectives. It suggests next that the perspective of the science of the design along with the rationality of action (SCD&RAC) offers a more consistent and useful framework when we are looking for innovation in teacher education.

Naturalistic Methodology


This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Hargreaves, D. (1996). Teaching as a research-based profession: Possibilities and prospects. Teacher Training Agency, London.Google Scholar
  2. Penalva, J. (2011). The role of explanations and prescriptions in the science of the design: The case of educational research. European Educational Research Journal, 10(2), 2011.  https://doi.org/10.2304/eerj.2011.10.2.272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Penalva, J. (2019). Contemporary methodological perspectives in educational research on ‘teacher’s practice’: Assumptions and shortcoming for ‘effective practices’. European Educational Research Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904119830902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  5. Slavin, R. E. (2008). Perspectives on evidence-based research in education what works? Educational Researcher, 37(1), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent ConsultantLondonUK