Advertisement

The Role of Personality in Workplace Bullying Research

  • Roger Persson
  • Eva Gemzøe Mikkelsen
  • Annie Hogh
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbooks of Workplace Bullying, Emotional Abuse and Harassment book series (HWBEAH, volume 2)

Abstract

Relying on international literature, the aim of this chapter is to expand the understanding of the relationship between personality and workplace bullying. The hope is to inspire, and possibly deepen, future research endeavours on this topic. The chapter is divided into three main sections that in turn (a) address how personality fits into workplace bullying research, (b) elaborate important empirical studies and (c) discuss extant and future research challenges. It is argued that the concepts of workplace bullying and personality to some extent share theoretical assumptions and empirical procedures. It is also argued that additional benefits and insights may be gained by moving beyond the personality trait perspective commonly adopted in workplace bullying research, by perhaps using a more person-centred approach to personality or by adopting other personality perspectives that focus on abilities, motivations and needs. To address the complexities and dynamics that are associated with the study of people’s personalities in the workplace bullying context, there seems to be a need for imaginative thinking and new study designs. This may, for example, entail studies that simultaneously focus on the personalities of targets of workplace bullying, perpetrators and bystanders. It may also entail studies that focus on how personality matters at different stages in the workplace bullying process and in the formal management of workplace bullying (e.g. who reports workplace bullying and how does the workplace bullying episode reach a conclusion).

References

  1. Allport, G. W., & Odbert, H. S. (1936). Trait names. A Psycho-lexical study (Vol. 47). Princeton/Albany: The American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  2. Aquino, K., & Lamertz, K. (2004). A relational model of Workplace victimization: Social roles and patterns of victimization in dyadic relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 1023–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Archer, D. (1999). Exploring “bullying” culture in the para-military organisation. International Journal of Manpower, 20(1–2), 94–105.  https://doi.org/10.1108/01437729910268687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ariza-Montes, A., Leal-Rodriguez, A. L., & Leal-Millan, A. G. (2015). A comparative study of workplace bullying among public and private employees in Europe. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(6), 695–700.  https://doi.org/10.1097/Jom.0000000000000437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Astrauskaite, M., Kern, R. M., & Notelaers, G. (2014). An individual psychology approach to underlying factors of workplace bullying. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 70(3), 220–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baillien, E., Escartín, J., Gross, C., & Zapf, D. (2017). Towards a conceptual and empirical differentiation between workplace bullying and interpersonal conflict. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2017.1385601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balducci, C., Alfano, V., & Fraccaroli, F. (2009). Relationships between mobbing at work and MMPI-2 personality profile, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and suicidal ideation and behavior. Violence and Victims, 24(1), 52–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1978). Self system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33(4), 344–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergman, L. R., & Magnusson, D. (1997). A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9(2), 291–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bloch, C. (2013). Vidner som aktører i mobning [Witnesses as actors in bullying]. In N. C. Mossfeldt Nickelsen (Ed.), Arbejdslivets skyggesider (pp. 217–236). Århus: Klim.Google Scholar
  12. Blumberg, M., & Pringle, C. (1982). The missing opportunity in organizational research: Some implications for a theory of work performance. The Academy of Management Review, 7(4), 560–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonde, J. P., Gullander, M., Hansen, A. M., Grynderup, M., Persson, R., Hogh, A., …, & Kolstad, H. A. (2016). Health correlates of workplace bullying: A 3-wave prospective follow-up study. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 42(1), 17–25.  https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowling, N. A., Beehr, T. A., Bennett, M. M., & Watson, C. P. (2010). Target personality and workplace victimization: A prospective analysis. Work and Stress, 24(2), 140–158.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2010.489635. Pii 923454718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buss, D. M. (1991). Evolutionary personality psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 42, 459–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Butcher, J. N., Dahlstrom, W. G., Graham, J. R., Tellegen, A. M., & Kreammer, B. (1989). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Manual for administration and scoring. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.Google Scholar
  17. Butterworth, P., Leach, L. S., & Kiely, K. M. (2016). Why it’s important for it to stop: Examining the mental health correlates of bullying and ill-treatment at work in a cohort study. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 50(11), 1085–1095.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867415622267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cami, J., Llorente, M., Farre, M., & Badenas, J. M. (1989). Personality of healthy-volunteers participating in phase-I Clinical-Trials. Personality and Individual Differences, 10(11), 1199–1200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(89)90088-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carducci, B. J. (1998). The psychology of personality. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing company (ITP).Google Scholar
  20. Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 64(56), 453–484.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Choi, B. C., & Pak, A. W. (2005). A catalog of biases in questionnaires. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2(1), A13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Clausen, T., Hogh, A., Carneiro, I. G., & Borg, V. (2013). Does psychological well-being mediate the association between experiences of acts of offensive behaviour and turnover among care workers? A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(6), 1301–1313.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06121.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (2013). Evolutionary psychology: New perspectives on cognition and motivation. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 201–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1997). Stability and change in personality assessment: The revised NEO personality inventory in the year 2000. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68(1), 86–94.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6801_7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (2000). Overview: Innovations in assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory. Assessment, 7(4), 325–327.  https://doi.org/10.1177/107319110000700402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cowie, H., Naylor, P., Rivers, I., Smith, P. K., & Pereira, B. (2002). Measuring workplace bullying. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(1), 33–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(00)00034-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coyne, I., Smith-Lee Chong, P., Seigne, E., & Randall, P. (2003). Self and peer nominations of bullying: An analysis of incident rates, individual differences, and perceptions of the working environment. European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, 12(3), 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. A. (1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2011). The limits to workplace friendship Managerialist HRM and bystander behaviour in the context of workplace bullying. Employee Relations, 33(3), 269–288.  https://doi.org/10.1108/01425451111121777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2012). Clarifying my world: Identity work in the context of workplace bullying. The Qualitative Report, 17(8), 1–29.Google Scholar
  31. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2017). Workplace cyberbullying. In K. Briken, S. Chillas, M. Krzywdzinski, & A. Marks (Eds.), The new digital workplace: How new technologies revolutionize work (pp. 112–131). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  32. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2018). Target experiences of workplace bullying on online labour markets. Uncovering the nuances of resilience. Employee Relations, 40(1), 139–154.  https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-09-2016-0171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dallner, M., Lindström, K., Elo, A., Skogstad, A., Gamberale, F., Vesa, H., …, & Örhede, E. (2000). Användarmanual för QPS-Nordic: Frågeformulär om psykologiska och sociala faktorer i arbetslivet utprovat i Danmark, Finland, Norge och Sverige. [User’s Guide for the Qps-nordic: General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work] Arbetslivsrapport (Vol. 19). Stockholm.Google Scholar
  34. Darwin, C. (1872/1965). The expressions of emotions in man and animal. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure – Emergence of the 5-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Donovan, M. A., Drasgow, F., & Munson, L. J. (1998). The perceptions of fair interpersonal treatment scale: Development and validation of a measure of interpersonal treatment in the workplace. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(5), 683–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Drayton, M. (2009). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Occupational Medicine-Oxford, 59(2), 135–135.  https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqn182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dunbar, R. I. M. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6(5), 178–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Einarsen, S. (1999). The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20(1–2), 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Einarsen, S. (2000). Harassment and bullying at work: A review of the Scandinavian approach. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5(4), 379–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. (2003). The concept of bullying at work: The European tradition. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace. International perspectives in research and practice (pp. 3–30). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  42. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Work and Stress, 23(1), 24–44.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370902815673. Pii 911454418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. (2011). The concept of bullying and harassment at work: The European tradition (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  44. Erlich, P. R. (2000). Human natures: Genes, cultures and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  45. Eysenck, H. J. (1963). Biological basis of personality. Nature, 199, 1031–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Funder, D. C. (2006). Towards a resolution of the personality triad: Persons, situations, and behaviors. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(1), 21–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gandolfo, R. (1995). MMPI-2 profiles of worker’s compensation claimants who present with complaints of harassment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 711–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Garcia, C., Philippot, P., Jouve, E., Bruguerolle, B., & Blin, O. (1998). Effects of anxiety on emotional reactivity, performance and vigilance, in healthy volunteers. Thérapie, 53(3), 301–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Girardi, P., Monaco, E., Prestigiacomo, C., Talamo, A., Ruberto, A., & Tatarelli, R. (2007). Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing. Violence and Victims, 22(2), 172–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gobert, J. J. (1977). Victim precipitation. Columbia Law Review, 77(4), 511–553.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1121822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative “description of personality”: The big-five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(6), 1216–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Goldberg, L. R. (1993). The structure of phenotypic personality-traits. American Psychologist, 48(1), 26–34.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.48.1.26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Goldberg, L. R., Johnson, J. A., Eber, H. W., Hogan, R., Ashton, M. C., Cloninger, C. R., & Gough, H. G. (2006). The international personality item pool and the future of public-domain personality measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(1), 84–96.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (1996). The neuropsychology of anxiety: Reprise. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 43, 61–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gullander, M., Hogh, A., Hansen, A. M., Persson, R., Rugulies, R., Kolstad, H. A., …, & Bonde, J. P. (2014). Exposure to workplace bullying and risk of depression. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 56(12), 1258–1265.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hansen, A. M., Hogh, A., Persson, R., Karlson, B., Garde, A. H., & Orbaek, P. (2006). Bullying at work, health outcomes, and physiological stress response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60(1), 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hauge, L. J., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2007). Relationships between stressful work environments and bullying: Results of a large representative study. Work and Stress, 21(3), 220–242.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370701705810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hauge, L. J., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2009). Individual and situational predictors of workplace bullying: Why do perpetrators engage in the bullying of others? Work and Stress, 23(4), 349–358.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370903395568. Pii 917513823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hershcovis, M. S. (2011). “Incivility, social undermining, bullying … oh my!”: A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(3), 499–519.  https://doi.org/10.1002/job.689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hogh, A., Hoel, H., & Carneiro, I. G. (2011). Bullying and employee turnover among healthcare workers: A three-wave prospective study. Journal of Nursing Management, 19(6), 742–751.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01264.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hogh, A., Conway, P. M., & Mikkelsen, E. G. (2017). Prevalence and risk factors for workplace bullying. In P. Sturmey (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of violence and aggression: Vol. 3. Societal interventions. Wiley (Published online Dec. 2017).Google Scholar
  62. Jackson, J. J., Connolly, J. J., Garrison, S. M., Leveille, M. M., & Connolly, S. L. (2015). Your friends know how long you will live: A 75-year study of peer-rated personality traits. Psychological Science, 26(3), 335–340.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797614561800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jacobson, R. P., Hood, J. N., & Jacobson, K. J. L. (2017). The effects of moral emotional traits on workplace bullying perpetration. Ethics & Behavior, 27(7), 527–546.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10508422.2016.1182026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Judge, T., & Bono, J. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits-self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability-with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 80–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Judge, T., Erez, A., Bono, J., & Thoresen, C. (2002). Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(3), 693–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kelly, G. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs. A theory of personality (Vol. 1). New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  67. Kirsch, I., & Lynn, S. J. (1999). Automaticity in clinical psychology. American Psychologist, 54(7), 504–515.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.54.7.504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lazarus, R. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. London: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, 5(2), 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lezak, M. D. (1983). Neuropsychological assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Matthews, G., & Deary, I. J. (1998). Personality traits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2001). MMPI-2 configurations among victims of bullying at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 467–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2007). Perpetrators and targets of bullying at work: Role stress and Individual Differences. Violence and Victims, 22(6), 735–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McAdams, D. P. (2000). Personality psychology. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 124–128). New York: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  75. McCrae, R. R. (2010). The place of the FFM in personality psychology. Psychological Inquiry, 21(1), 57–64.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10478401003648773. Pii 921904496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Meade, A. (2012). Restriction of range. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 1279–1280). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  77. Monte, C. F. (2000). Theories. In A. E. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 128–133). New York: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  78. Mortensen, M., & Baarts, C. A. (2018). Killing ourselves with laughter…mapping the interplay of organizational teasing and workplace bullying in hospital work life. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 13, 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mulder, R., Pouwelse, M., Lodewijkx, H., & Bolman, C. (2014). Workplace mobbing and bystanders’ helping behaviour towards victims: The role of gender, perceived responsibility and anticipated stigma by association. International Journal of Psychology, 49(4), 304–312.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Mulder, R., Pouwelse, M., Lodewijkx, H., Bos, A. E. R., & van Dam, K. (2016). Predictors of antisocial and prosocial behaviour of bystanders in workplace mobbing. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 26(3), 207–220.  https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.2244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nielsen, M. B., & Knardahl, S. (2015). Is workplace bullying related to the personality traits of victims? A two-year prospective study. Work and Stress, 29(2), 128–149.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2015.1032383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nielsen, M. B., Notelaers, G., & Einarsen, S. (2011). Measuring exposure to workplace bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research and practice (pp. 149–175). London: Taylor & Francis Ltd..Google Scholar
  83. Nielsen, M. B., Mageroy, N., Gjerstad, J., & Einarsen, S. (2014). Mobbing i arbeidslivet og senare helseplager [Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems]. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen, 134(12–13), 1233–1238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nielsen, M. B., Indregard, A. M., & Overland, S. (2016). Workplace bullying and sickness absence: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 42(5), 359–370.  https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nielsen, M. B., Glaso, L., & Einarsen, S. (2017). Exposure to workplace harassment and the Five Factor Model of personality: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 195–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nowak, M. A. (2006). Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. Science, 314(5805), 1560–1563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at schools: What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  88. Pallesen, S., Nielsen, M. B., Mageroy, N., Andreassen, C. S., & Einarsen, S. (2017). An experimental study on the attribution of personality traits to bullies and targets in a workplace setting. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pavlov, I. (1927). Conditional reflexes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Persson, R., Hogh, A., Hansen, A. M., Nordander, C., Ohlsson, K., Balogh, I., …, & Orbaek, P. (2009). Personality trait scores among occupationally active bullied persons and witnesses to bullying. Motivation and Emotion, 33, 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Persson, R., Hogh, A., Grynderup, M. B., Willert, M. V., Gullander, M., Hansen, A. M., …, & Bonde, J. P. E. (2016). Relationship Between Changes in Workplace Bullying Status and the Reporting of Personality Characteristics. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(9), 902–910.  https://doi.org/10.1097/Jom.0000000000000822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pervin, L. (1993). Personality. Theory and research (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  93. Pieters, M. S. M., Jennekensschinkel, A., Schoemaker, H. C., & Cohen, A. F. (1992). Self-selection for personality-variables among healthy-volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 33(1), 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Plotkin, H. (2011). Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 366(1563), 454–463.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0160.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Podsiadly, A., & Gamian-Wilk, M. (2017). Personality traits as predictors or outcomes of being exposed to bullying in the workplace. Personality and Individual Differences, 115, 43–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rammsayer, T., Stahl, J., & Schmiga, K. (2006). Basic personality dimensions and stress-related coping strategies in victims of workplace bullying. Zeitschrift für Personalpsychologie, 5(2), 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. New York: Prentice Hall Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sackett, D. L. (1979). Bias in analytic research. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 32(1–2), 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Samnani, A. K., & Singh, P. (2016). Workplace bullying: Considering the interaction between individual and work environment. Journal of Business Ethics, 139(3), 537–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sato, T. (2005). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Brief Version: Factor structure and reliability. The Journal of Psychology, 139(6), 545–552.  https://doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.139.6.545-552.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Seigne, E., Coyne, I., Randall, P., & Parker, J. (2007). Personality traits of bullies as a contributory factor in workplace bullying: An exploratory study. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, 10(1), 118–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Setterlind, S., & Larsson, G. (1995). The stress profile: A psychosocial approach to measuring stress. Stress Medicine, 11, 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information-processing. 2. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84(2), 127–190.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.84.2.127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms. New York: Appelton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  105. Srivastava, S., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2003). Development of personality in early and middle adulthood: Set like plaster or persistent change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5), 1041–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Strelau, J. (1998). Temperament: A psychological perspective. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  107. van Heugten, K. (2013). Resilience as an underexplored outcome of workplace bullying. Qualitative Health Research, 23(3), 291–301.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732312468251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yokoyama, M., Suzuki, M., Takai, Y., Igarashi, A., Noguchi-Watanabe, M., & Yamamoto-Mitani, N. (2016). Workplace bullying among nurses and their related factors in Japan: A cross-sectional survey. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25(17–18), 2478–2488.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.13270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Zapf, D. (1999). Organisational, work group related and personal causes of mobbing bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20(1–2), 70–85.  https://doi.org/10.1108/01437729910268669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., & Sliwinska, M. (1998). Inwentarz osobowosci NEOFFI Costy McCrae: Adaptacja polska. Podrecznik Warsawa: Pracownia Testow Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.Google Scholar
  112. Zimbardo, P. G. (1973). Ethics of intervention in human psychological research – With special reference to Stanford prison experiment. Cognition, 2(2), 243–256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(72)90014-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Zuckerman, M. (1991). Psychobiology of personality. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations