Hinduism and Tribal Religions

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffery D. Long, Rita D. Sherma, Pankaj Jain, Madhu Khanna


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1036-5_72-1

Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent. The principal schools are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman and Atman; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas [1].

There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy: Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā, and Vedanta and five major heterodox schools: Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Cārvāka.

Nyāya school of Indian Philosophy was founded by Gotama who is also known as Aks̩apāda.

Nyāya is also known as: Pramāns̩astra: science of logic and epistemology, Hetuvidya: Science of causation, Vādavidya: Science of debate, anvīks̩kī: Science of critical study and tarksastra: Science of reasoning. Nyāya-sutra is the main text written by Gotama, on which Vatsayanwrote a...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity UniversityNoidaIndia